Achaemenid Dynasty


Achaemenid Dynasty

▪ Egyptian dynasty
      the Persian 27th dynasty of Egypt (525–404 BC), founded by Cambyses II of Persia and named after his family of the Achaemenids.

      The policy of the Achaemenid kings seems to have been conciliatory to national beliefs and sentiments. There are conflicting views of Cambyses II's reign. The Egyptian courtier Udjahorresne depicts an ideal ruler in the pharaonic tradition, while Herodotus draws a portrait of a savage tyrant. Cambyses II apparently reduced the revenues given the Egyptian priesthood by more than half. Certainly Darius (Darius I) (reigned 522–486 BC) proved himself a more beneficent ruler and, in a visit to Egypt, displayed his consideration for the religion of the country. He restored the priests' privileges, ordered a written codification of Egyptian law, and completed or repaired the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea. At the very end of his reign, however, several years after the Achaemenid defeat at Marathon, Egypt rebelled. Xerxes (reigned 486–465 BC) put down the revolt with severity.

      The disorders that marked the accession of his successor, Artaxerxes (Artaxerxes I) (reigned 466–424 BC), gave Egypt another opportunity to rebel, aided by an Athenian force. In 455 BC, however, the Achaemenids captured and destroyed two Athenian fleets and quickly ended the rebellion. The reigns of Xerxes II and Darius II were uneventful until 404 BC, when Egypt regained its independence under Amyrtaeus of Sais. The Persians briefly reconquered Egypt under Artaxerxes III between 343 and 341 BC, and it remained under Achaemenid rule until 332, when the satrap surrendered to Alexander the Great.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Achaemenid Empire — noun The empire ruled by the Achaemenid dynasty 550 BC–330 BC. Syn: Persia, Persian Empire …   Wiktionary

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  • achaemenid — adj. & n. (also Achaemenian) adj. of or relating to the dynasty ruling in Persia from Cyrus I to Darius III (553 330 BC). n. a member of this dynasty. Etymology: L Achaemenius f. Gk Akhaimenes, ancestor of the dynasty …   Useful english dictionary

  • Achaemenid — [ə ki:mənɪd] (also Achaemenian ˌakɪ mi:nɪən) noun a member of the dynasty ruling in Persia from Cyrus I to Darius III (553–330 BC). Origin named after Achaemenes, the reputed ancestor of the dynasty …   English new terms dictionary

  • Achaemenid — noun (plural menids; also Achaemenidae) Etymology: Greek Achaimenides, from Achaimenes, 7th century B.C. Persian king, founder of the dynasty + ides (patronymic suffix) Date: 1889 a member of the ruling house of ancient Persia generally …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Achaemenid — /euh kee meuh nid, euh kem euh /, n., pl. Achaemenids, Achaemenidae /ak euh men i dee /, Achaemenides /ak euh men i deez /. a member of the dynasty of kings in ancient Persia that ruled from c550 B.C. to 331 B.C. [ACHAEMEN(ES) + ID1] * * * …   Universalium

  • Achaemenid — n. ruler who was a member of a dynasty of kings that ruled in ancient Persia from 550 331 BC …   English contemporary dictionary


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