Van Allen, James Alfred


Van Allen, James Alfred
▪ 2007
 American physicist (b. Sept. 7, 1914, Mount Pleasant, Iowa—d. Aug. 9, 2006, Iowa City, Iowa), brought about new understanding of cosmic radiation and its effects on Earth with his discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts, two zones of radiation encircling Earth. Van Allen attended Iowa Wesleyan College (B.S., 1935) and the University of Iowa (M.S., 1936; Ph.D., 1939). During World War II he served as a naval officer and helped develop the radio proximity fuse for naval artillery shells. In 1946 he was placed in charge of high-altitude research at the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, Silver Spring, Md. He supervised the testing and use of captured German V-2 rockets for upper-atmosphere exploration and assisted in the development of the Aerobee, one of the first rockets built for research purposes. In 1951 Van Allen became professor of physics at the University of Iowa, where he taught until his retirement in 1985. He was one of the scientists who proposed a program of worldwide cooperation in research, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957–58. The instrumentation of the early Explorer satellites, part of the United States' IGY program, was built by Van Allen and his associates. Launched on Jan. 31, 1958, Explorer 1 was the first successful U.S. space satellite. The information on cosmic radiation gathered by the Explorer satellites led to the discovery of the radiation belts that came to be named for him. He later participated in the development of a number of space probes built to study planetary and solar physics. Van Allen wrote numerous papers and journal articles. He also edited Scientific Uses of Earth Satellites (1956) and was an associate editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research (1959–64) and Physics of Fluids (1958–62). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1959 and was president of the American Geophysical Union from 1982 to 1984. In 1987 Van Allen was awarded the National Medal of Science.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Van Allen, James Alfred — Van Allen , James Alfred …   Scientists

  • Van Allen , James Alfred — (1914–) American physicist Van Allen was born at Mount Pleasant, Iowa. After graduating from the Iowa Wesleyan College in 1935 he went on to the University of Iowa, where he gained his PhD in 1939. His subsequent career took him to the Carnegie… …   Scientists

  • Allen , James Alfred Van — See Van Allen, James Alfred …   Scientists

  • Van Allen, James A. — ▪ American physicist in full  James Alfred Van Allen  born Sept. 7, 1914, Mount Pleasant, Iowa, U.S. died Aug. 9, 2006, Iowa City, Iowa  American physicist, whose discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts (Van Allen radiation belt), two zones of …   Universalium

  • James Alfred Van Allen — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Allen. James Alfred van Allen James Alfred Van Allen (7 septembre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James alfred van allen — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Allen. James Alfred van Allen James Alfred Van Allen (7 septembre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James A. van Allen — James Alfred van Allen Pour les articles homonymes, voir Allen. James Alfred van Allen James Alfred Van Allen (7 septembre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Van Allen — James Alfred van Allen Pour les articles homonymes, voir Allen. James Alfred van Allen James Alfred Van Allen (7 septembre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James van Allen — James Alfred van Allen Pour les articles homonymes, voir Allen. James Alfred van Allen James Alfred Van Allen (7 septembre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Van Allen — James Alfred van Allen (* 7. September 1914 in Mount Pleasant, Iowa; † 9. August 2006 in Iowa City) war ein US amerikanischer Astrophysiker und Raumfahrtpionier. Seine bekannteste Entdeckung war der Nachweis eines Strahlungsfeldes um die Erde,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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