Rice, Condoleezza


Rice, Condoleezza
▪ 2007
 In 2006 U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice led an intensified diplomatic effort to promote democracy and a U.S.-friendly peace in an increasingly resistant Middle East. After fighting broke out in mid-July between Israel and Lebanon-based Hezbollah forces, Rice defended the decision by the U.S. not to seek an immediate cease-fire, arguing that such an action “would be a false promise if it simply returns us to the status quo.” In early August, however, she pressed the UN Security Council for a cease-fire resolution, which passed on August 11 and became effective three days later. Elsewhere in the region, Rice gave constant voice to themes of democracy and freedom but also sought to counter the influence of groups opposed to U.S. policy. After congratulating the Palestinians on successful parliamentary elections in January, she announced that the United States would deny aid to Palestine if the victorious Islamist Hamas, a fervently religious movement, assumed power without abandoning its militant anti-Israel stance. In May Rice criticized the human rights record of Iran's government and challenged it to honour its international obligations—namely, inspections of Iranian nuclear facilities. She later joined European foreign ministers in calling for UN sanctions against Iran.

      Rice was born on Nov. 14, 1954, in Birmingham, Ala., the only child of John and Angelena Rice. She studied political science at the University of Denver, receiving a bachelor's degree in 1974. She earned a master's degree (1975) from the University of Notre Dame and a doctorate (1981) from the University of Denver. During the early 1980s she conducted research and taught at Stanford University. With a growing reputation as an expert on Soviet-bloc politics, in 1986 Rice became an adviser to the Joint Chiefs of Staff under Pres. Ronald Reagan. Under Pres. George H.W. Bush, Rice served as director and then senior director of Soviet and East European affairs on the National Security Council and as a special assistant to the president. She returned to Stanford in 1991 and served as the university's provost from 1993 to 1999.

      In 1999 Rice joined George W. Bush's presidential campaign as a foreign policy adviser. Bush named her national security adviser following his election. After the 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S., she became a prominent advocate for the invasion of Iraq and the administration's war on terrorism. Having succeeded Colin Powell as secretary of state in January 2005, Rice brokered negotiations to end Israel's occupation of the Gaza Strip. She also persuaded North Korea to return to talks aimed at dismantling that country's nuclear weapons program. Her writings included The Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Army, 1948–1983: Uncertain Allegiance (1984) and Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft (1995, with Philip Zelikow).

Janet Moredock

▪ 2003

      Developments between Russia and the U.S. in 2002 bore the mark of Condoleezza Rice, national security adviser to Pres. George W. Bush. This was particularly evident in June when, with only minor protests from the Russian government, the U.S. formally withdrew from the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty, which would have prohibited the development of a missile defense system. Rice had begun to prepare the way for the U.S. action with a visit to Moscow in August 2001, the first high-ranking member of the Bush administration to travel to Russia. The quick and relatively smooth U.S. withdrawal from the treaty, unthinkable only a few years before, was taken as a measure of her skill and influence. Opposed to U.S. participation in peacekeeping missions and a public supporter of the proposal to overthrow Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein, she was considered to be aligned with the hard-liners on the Bush foreign policy and defense staffs.

      Rice was born on Nov. 14, 1954, in Birmingham, Ala. Her father was a minister and college administrator and her mother a pianist and teacher. The family later moved to Denver, Colo., and at age 15 Rice entered the University of Denver. Although she had earlier considered a career as a concert pianist, in college she turned to the study of international relations, earning a bachelor's degree in the field in 1974. She obtained a master's degree in economics from the University of Notre Dame in 1975 and a doctorate in international studies from the University of Denver in 1981, where her speciality was Eastern and Central Europe and the Soviet Union, including military and security affairs. Rice joined the faculty of Stanford University in 1981 and in 1984 received an award for her teaching. In 1986 she served as an assistant to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on nuclear strategy, and during the administration of Pres. George H.W. Bush she was director for Soviet and Eastern European affairs for the National Security Council (NSC) and a special assistant to the president.

      In 1991 Rice returned to Stanford, and in 1993 she was again honoured with an award for teaching. In 1993 she began a six-year tenure as provost, during which time she balanced the university's budget and revamped the curriculum for undergraduates. She was a fellow of the Hoover Institution and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Writings included the book Germany Unified and Europe Transformed (1995; with Philip Zelikow) and many articles. In 1999 she left Stanford to become foreign policy adviser to the Bush campaign, and upon his election she was named head of the NSC, the first woman to hold the position. Though Rice seemed largely out of view following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S., by 2002 she was playing a prominent role in foreign policy and frequently traveling with the president.

Robert Rauch

* * *

▪ American government official
born Nov. 14, 1954, Birmingham, Alabama, U.S.
 
 American educator and politician, who served as national security adviser (2001–05) and secretary of state (2005–09) to Pres. George W. Bush (Bush, George W.).

      At age 15 Rice entered the University of Denver. Although she had earlier considered a career as a concert pianist, she turned to the study of international relations, earning a bachelor's degree in the field in 1974. She later obtained a master's degree (1975) in economics from the University of Notre Dame and a doctorate (1981) in international studies from the University of Denver, where her specialty was eastern and central Europe and the Soviet Union, including military and security affairs. Rice joined the faculty of Stanford University in 1981. In 1986 she served as an assistant to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on nuclear strategy, and during the administration of Pres. George Bush (Bush, George) she was director for Soviet and eastern European affairs for the National Security Council (NSC) and a special assistant to the president. In 1991 Rice returned to Stanford and in 1993 began a six-year tenure as provost, during which time she balanced the university's budget and revamped the curriculum for undergraduates.

      In 1999 Rice left Stanford to become foreign policy adviser to the presidential campaign of George W. Bush, and upon his election she was named head of the NSC, the first woman to hold this position. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, she proved to be an important and influential adviser to Bush. She supported the U.S.-led attacks on terrorist and Taliban targets in Afghanistan (2001) and aligned herself with hard-liners who advocated the overthrow of Iraqi President Ṣaddām Ḥussein. When the administration drew criticism for the Iraq War (2003) and the handling of terrorist threats prior to September 11, 2001, Rice vigorously defended the president's policy.

 In 2005 she succeeded Colin Powell (Powell, Colin) as secretary of state, becoming the first African American woman to hold the post. In her post, Rice helped negotiate an end to Israel's occupation of the Gaza Strip. She also persuaded North Korea to return to talks aimed at dismantling that country's nuclear weapons program. Rice led an intense effort to promote democracy and broker a U.S.-friendly peace in the Middle East. After fighting broke out in July 2006 between Israel and Lebanon-based Hezbollah forces, Rice initially defended the decision by the United States not to seek an immediate cease-fire, but the following month she urged the United Nations Security Council to adopt such a resolution. She also joined European foreign ministers in calling for sanctions against Iran, after that country failed to halt its nuclear program or allow inspections of its nuclear facilities.

      Rice's writings include The Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Army, 1948–1983: Uncertain Allegiance (1984) and Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft (1995, with Philip Zeliko).

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Universalium. 2010.

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