Reines, Frederick

Reines, Frederick
▪ 1999

      American physicist (b. March 16, 1918, Paterson, N.J.—d. Aug. 26, 1998, Orange, Calif.), was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize for Physics for his detection in 1956 of neutrinos. The existence of these elusive subatomic particles, which have no electric charge and little, if any, mass, had been postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s but remained unproven until Reines and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., used massive tanks of a water solution of cadmium chloride to observe signs of hydrogen nuclei being struck by the neutrinos from a nearby nuclear reactor. While a science undergraduate at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J., Reines also took voice lessons at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. He eventually chose science over opera and received a B.S. (1939) and M.A. (1941) from Stevens and a Ph.D. (1944) from New York University. In later years Reines, a baritone, performed with the Cleveland (Ohio) Symphony Orchestra, and he could often be heard singing opera while working in the laboratory. Recruited to the Manhattan Project team at Los Alamos, N.M., after graduation, he also worked on atomic tests in the Marshall Islands after World War II. After finding the neutrino, Reines led pioneering research projects in neutrino astronomy and in 1959 became head of the physics department at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University) in Cleveland. In 1966 he was made the founding dean of physical science at the University of California, Irvine, where he worked until his retirement in 1988.

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▪ American physicist
born March 16, 1918, Paterson, N.J., U.S.
died Aug. 26, 1998, Orange, Calif.

      American physicist who was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery 40 years earlier, together with his colleague Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., of the subatomic particle called the neutrino, a tiny lepton with little or no mass and a neutral charge. Reines shared the Nobel Prize with physicist Martin Lewis Perl (Perl, Martin Lewis), who also discovered a fundamental particle, the tau.

      Reines was educated at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. (B.S., 1939; M.A., 1941), and at New York University (Ph.D., 1944). From 1944 to 1959 he conducted research in particle physics and nuclear weaponry at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico; in 1951 he oversaw experiments designed for the testing of nuclear weapons in the Marshall Islands. After his discovery of the neutrino, Reines joined the faculty of Case Institute of Technology (later Case Western Reserve University) in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1959. He was a professor at the University of California at Irvine from 1966 until his retirement in 1988. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1980.

      The neutrino was first postulated in the 1930s by Wolfgang Pauli (Pauli, Wolfgang) and later named by Enrico Fermi (Fermi, Enrico), but because of its minuscule size, it eluded detection for many years. In the early 1950s Reines and Cowan set out to detect the particle, first at the Hanford Engineer Works in Richland, Wash., and then at the Savannah River laboratories in South Carolina. In their experiment a nuclear reactor emitted neutrinos into a 400-litre (105-gallon) preparation of water and cadmium chloride. When a neutrino collided with a hydrogen nucleus (i.e., a proton), the interaction created a positron and a neutron. The positron was slowed by the liquid solution and destroyed by an electron, creating photons that were recorded by scintillation detectors. The neutron was likewise slowed and destroyed by a cadmium nucleus, creating photons that were recorded microseconds after the first set of photons. The separate recordings of the two impacts, therefore, gave proof of the existence of the neutrino. Reines subsequently built other neutrino detectors underground and helped pioneer the field of neutrino astronomy.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • REINES, FREDERICK — (1918–1998), physicist and Nobel Prize winner. Reines obtained his M.E. and M.S. degrees from Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey, and his Ph.D. from New York University in 1944. He was a member and then group leader of the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Reines , Frederick — (1918–1998) American physicist Born at Paterson in New Jersey, Reines was educated at the Stevens Institute of Technology and gained his PhD in theoretical physics at New York University in 1944. From 1944 to 1959 he was a group leader at the Los …   Scientists

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  • Frederick Reines — (16 mars 1918 26 août 1998) est un physicien américain. Il est lauréat de la moitié du prix Nobel de physique de 1995 « pour la détection du neutrino » …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Frederick Reines — (* 16. März 1918 in Paterson, New Jersey; † 26. August 1998 in Orange, Kalifornien) war ein amerikanischer Physiker. Für den experimentellen Nachweis des Neutrinos erhielt er zusammen mit …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Frederick Reines — (16 de marzo, 1918 – 26 de agosto, 1998) fue un físico estadounidense, coganador en 1995 del Premio Nobel de Física por la codetección del antineutrino con Clyde Cowan en el experimento del neutrino. Es considera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Frederick (Vorname) — Frederick ist ein männlicher Vorname. Er ist das englische Pendant zu Friedrich oder Friederich, wird in dieser oder sprachlich leicht angepasster Form aber auch in nicht englischsprachigen Gebieten verwendet. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Reines —   [reɪnz], Frederick, amerikanischer Physiker, * Paterson (N. J.) 16. 3. 1918, ✝ Orange (Calif.) 26. 8. 1998; arbeitete 1944 59 in den Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories, 1959 66 Professor am Case Western Institute of Technology, danach Professor …   Universal-Lexikon