POLITICAL PARTIES


POLITICAL PARTIES
▪ 1997

       Political PartiesThe following Table (Political Parties) is a guide to the principal political parties and coalitions of the world. All countries that were independent on Dec. 31, 1996, are included, except the Vatican City State. In most instances parties are included only if represented in elected parliaments (in the lower house in bicameral legislatures). (Party names may be condensed or omitted for reasons of space or to more clearly indicate party groupings.) The first column under "Parliamentary representation" indicates the number of seats obtained in the most recent general election and excludes nonelective seats and seats still undecided. If only a portion of the seats were at stake, the figure given indicates the total number of seats held by each party after the election. The second column (in parentheses) represents the number of seats in the penultimate election and may include different coalitions. The date of the most recent election follows the name of the country.

      The capital letters in the column "Affiliation" show the relative positions of the parties within the political spectrum of each country. The key chosen is as follows: F-fascist; ER-extreme right; R-right; CR-centre right; C-centre; CL-centre left; SD-social democratic; S-socialist; L-non-Marxist left; K-Communist; and EL-extreme left. In addition, within some countries there are political organizations that exist chiefly to advance a special interest as distinct from a political orientation. These are represented by lowercase letters as follows: x-parties that have repudiated former Communist affiliation; e-parties based on distinct regional, ethnic, or linguistic identity; r-parties based on religion, usually fundamentalist; g-environmental, or Green; and p-parties based largely on personalities.

      The numbers in the column "Voting strength" indicate proportions of the valid votes cast for the respective parties. (STEPHEN NEHER; MELINDA C. SHEPHERD)

▪ 1996

       Political PartiesThe table (Political Parties) is a general guide to the principal political parties and coalitions of the world. All countries that were independent on Dec. 31, 1995, are included, except the Vatican City State. In most instances parties are included only if represented in elected parliaments (in the lower house in bicameral legislatures). (Party names may be condensed or omitted for reasons of space or to more clearly indicate party groupings.) Figures in the column "Parliamentary representation" indicate the number of seats obtained in the most recent general election (figures in parentheses are those of the penultimate one) and exclude nonelective seats and seats still undecided. If only a portion of the seats were at stake in the last general election, the figure given indicates the total number of seats held by each party after the election. The date of the most recent election follows the name of the country.

      The capital letters in the column "Affiliation" show the relative positions of the parties within the political spectrum of each country. The key chosen is as follows: F-fascist; ER-extreme right; R-right; CR-centre right; C-centre; CL-centre left; SD-social democratic; S-socialist; L-non-Marxist left; K-Communist; and EL-extreme left. In addition, within some countries there are political organizations that exist chiefly to advance a special interest as distinct from a political orientation. These are represented by lower-case letters as follows: x-parties that have repudiated former Communist affiliation; e-parties based on distinct regional, ethnic, or linguistic identity; r-religious fundamentalist; g-environmental, or Green; and p-parties based largely on personalities.

      The numbers in the column "Voting strength" indicate proportions of the valid votes cast for the respective parties. (MELINDA C. SHEPHERD)

▪ 1995

       Political PartiesThe following table (Political Parties) is a general guide to the principal political parties and coalitions of the world. All countries that were independent on Dec. 31, 1994, are included, except the Vatican City State. In most instances parties are included only if represented in elected parliaments (in the lower house in bicameral legislatures). Figures in the column "Parliamentary representation" indicate the number of seats obtained in the most recent general election (figures in parentheses are those of the penultimate one) and exclude nonelective seats and seats still undecided. If only a portion of the seats were at stake in the last general election, the figure given indicates the total number of seats held by each party after the election. The date of the most recent election follows the name of the country.

      The capital letters in the column "Affiliation" show the relative positions of the parties within the political spectrum of each country. The key chosen is as follows: F-fascist; ER-extreme right; R-right; CR-centre right; C-centre; CL-centre left; SD-social democratic; S-socialist; L-non-Marxist left; K-Communist; and EL-extreme left. In addition, within some countries there are political organizations that exist chiefly to advance a special interest as distinct from a political orientation. These are represented by lower-case letters as follows: x-parties that have repudiated former Communist affiliation; e-parties based on distinct regional, ethnic, or linguistic identity; pen-pensioners; r-religious fundamentalist; g-environmental, or Green; and p-parties based largely on personalities.

      The numbers in the column "Voting strength" indicate proportions of the valid votes cast for the respective parties. (MELINDA C. SHEPHERD)

▪ 1994

       Political PartiesThe Political Parties table (Political Parties) is a general guide to the principal political parties and coalitions of the world. All countries that were independent on Dec. 31, 1993, are included, except the Vatican City State. Parties are included in most instances only if represented in elected parliaments (in the lower house in bicameral legislatures). Figures in the column "Parliamentary representation" indicate the number of seats obtained in the last general election (figures in parentheses are those of the penultimate one) and exclude nonelective seats and seats still undecided. If only a portion of the seats were at stake in the last general election, the figure given indicates the total number of seats held by each party after the election. The date of the most recent election follows the name of the country.

      The capital letters in the column "Affiliation" show the relative positions of the parties within the political spectrum of each country. The key chosen is as follows: F-fascist; ER-extreme right; R-right; CR-centre right; C-centre; CL-centre left; SD-social democratic; S-socialist; L-non-Marxist left; K-Communist; and EL-extreme left. In addition, within some countries there are political organizations that exist chiefly to advance a special interest as distinct from a political orientation. These are represented by lower-case letters as follows: x-parties that have repudiated former Communist affiliation; e-parties based on distinct regional, ethnic, or linguistic identity; r-religious fundamentalist; g-environmental, or Green; and p-parties based largely on personalities.

      The numbers in the column "Voting strength" indicate proportions of the valid votes cast for the respective parties. (MELINDA C. SHEPHERD)

* * *

Table
Parlia-
Voting mentary
Country Affili- strength represen-
Name of party ation (%) tation

Afghanistan
Multifactional warfare
from January 1993 — — —

Albania (March 1992)
Democratic Party CR 62.1 92 (75)
Social Democratic Party SD 4.4 7 —
Socialist Party x 25.7 38 (169)
Other — 7.8 3 (6)

Algeria
Interim government
since January 1992 — — —

Andorra (December 1993)
National Democratic
Grouping and allies ... ... 15
Others and independents ... ... 13

Angola (September 1992)
Popular Liberation Movement of
Angola-Labour Party (MPLA-PT) x 53.7 129 (203)
National Union for the Total
Independence of Angola (UNITA) — 34.1 70 —
Others — 12.2 21 —

Antigua and Barbuda (March 1994)
Antigua Labour Party C 54.4 11 (15)
United Progressive Party C 43.7 5 (1)
Barbuda People's Movement e 1.4 1 (1)

Argentina (October 1993)
Movement for Dignity
and Independence R 5.8 7 (3)
Union of the Democratic Centre CR 2.6 5 (10)
Justicialist National Movement
(Peronist) — 42.3 126 (119)
Radical Civic Union CL 30.0 83 (85)
Provincial parties e 10.4 38 (19)
Others — 8.9 (18)

Armenia (May-July 1990)
Supreme Soviet — — ...

Australia (March 1993)
National R 7.5 16 (14)
Liberal C 36.8 49 (55)
Labor L 44.9 80 (78)
Others and independents — 10.8 2 (1)

Austria (October 1994)
Austrian Freedom Party R 22.6 42 (33)
Austrian People's Party C 27.7 52 (60)
Austrian Social Democratic Party SD 35.2 65 (80)
Liberal Forum L 5.7 11 (—)
Greens Lg 7.0 13 (10)

Azerbaijan
Interim parliament
from May 1992 — — —

Bahamas, The (August 1992)
Progressive Liberal Party C 44.7 15 (31)
Free National Movement C 55.0 34 (16)
Others — 0.3 0 (2)

Bahrain
Consultative Council
(advisory body) — — —

Bangladesh (February 1991)
Bangladesh Nationalist Party CR 31 166 (18)
National Party (coalition) — 11 35 (251)
Awami League SD 31 89 —
Islamic Assembly r 12 21 (5)
Others — 15 19 (25)

Barbados (September 1994)
Democratic Labour Party C 38.4 8 (18)
National Democratic Party — 12.7 1 (0)
Barbados Labour Party SD 48.3 19 (10)

Belarus (March 1990)
Supreme Soviet K — 272

Belgium (November 1991)
Vlaams Blok ERe 6.6 12 (2)
Volksunie Re 5.9 10 (16)
Front Démocratique Re 1.5 3 (3)
Flemish CR 11.9 26 (25)
Liberals
French CR 8.2 20 (23)
Flemish C 16.7 39 (43)
Social Christians
French C 7.8 18 (19)
Flemish SD 12.0 28 (32)
Socialists
French SD 13.6 35 (40)
Flemish g 4.9 7 (6)
Greens
French g 5.1 10 (3)
Others — 7.3 7 (3)

Belize (June 1993)
United Democratic Party R 48.8 16 (13)
People's United Party C 51.2 13 (15)

Benin (February 1991)
Union of the Forces of Progress
(formerly sole party) — ... 0
21 other parties — ... 64

Bhutan
National Assembly, no parties — — 105

Bolivia (June 1993)
Civic Solidarity Union R ... 20 —
Nationalist Revolutionary
Movement CR 36 52 (40)
Patriotic Accord (coalition) — 21 35 (71)
Conscience of the Fatherland CL ... 13 (9)
Free Bolivia Movement L ... 7 —
Others — ... 3 (10)

Bosnia and Herzegovina (December 1990)
Party of Democratic Action (Muslim) e ... 86
Serbian Democratic Party e ... 72
Croatian Democratic Union e ... 44
Democratic Party of Socialists x ... 20
Others — ... 18

Botswana (October 1994)
Botswana Democratic Party C ... 26 (31)
Botswana National Front CL ... 13 (3)

Brazil (October 1994)
Rightist parties R ... 90
Social Democracy and allies C ... 175 (243)
Democratic Movement and allies CL ... 105 (146)
Workers Party and allies L ... 77 (95)
Others — ... 66 (14)

Brunei
Legislative Council (nonelected) — — —

Bulgaria (December 1994)
Union of Democratic Forces CL 24 69 (110)
Bulgarian Socialist Party x 44 125 (106)
Movement for Rights and
Freedoms (Turkish) e ... (24)
Popular Union — ... 46 (—)
Bulgarian Business Bloc — ... (—)

Burkina Faso (May 1992)
Government coalition ... ... 84
Opposition parties ... ... 23

Burundi (June 1993)
Burundi Democratic Front — 72.6 65
Unity for National Progress — 21.9 16

Cambodia (May 1993)
Funcinpec CR 45.5 58
Buddhist Liberal
Democratic Party L 3.8 10
Cambodian People's Party x 38.2 51
Others — 12.5 1

Cameroon (March 1992)
People's Democratic Movement
and allied party — ... 94 (180)
Opposition parties — ... 86 —

Canada (October 1993)
Reform R 18.1 52 —
Progressive Conservative CR 16.1 2 (170)
Liberal C 41.6 177 (82)
New Democratic SD 6.6 9 (43)
Bloc Québécois e 13.9 54 —
Others and independents — 3.7 1 (0)

Cape Verde (January 1991)
Movement for Democracy — 68.5 56 —
African Party for the Independence
of Cape Verde — 31.5 23 (83)

Central African Republic
(August-September 1993)
Central African People's
Liberation Party — ... 34
Others — ... 51

Chad
Transitional government
since March 1991 — — —

Chile (December 1993)
Independent Democratic Union ER ... 15 (11)
National Renovation and allied party R ... 31 (29)
Centre-right independents CR ... 4 (8)
Christian Democratic Party C ... 37 (38)
Leftist parties and independent CL-L ... 33 (34)

China (September 1992-March 1993)
National People's Congress K ... 2,978

Colombia (March 1994)
Social Conservative Party R ... 56 (15)
Other rightist parties R ... ... (24)
Liberal Party C ... 89 (86)
Democratic Alliance-
April 19 Movement L-EL ... 2 (15)
Patriotic Union EL ... ... (2)
Others — ... 16 (19)

Comoros (December 1993)
Government supporters — ... 24 (17)
Opposition parties — ... 18 (25)

Congo (May-October 1993)
Presidential Coalition — ... 63 (69)
Opposition Coalition — ... 50 (49)
Others — ... 4 (7)

Costa Rica (February 1994)
Social Christian Unity Party CR 40.4 25 (29)
National Liberation Party CL 44.6 28 (25)
Others — 15.0 4 (3)

Côte d'Ivoire (November 1990)
Democratic Party — ... 163 (175)
Popular Front SD ... 9 —
Others and independents — ... 3 —

Croatia (August 1992)
Croatian Party of Rights ERe 6.4 5
Croatian Democratic Union e 41.5 85
Croatian People's Party C 6.9 6
Croatian Social-Liberal Party CL 18.3 14
Party of Democratic Changes x 5.8 11
Others and independents — 20.6 17

Cuba (February 1993)
Communist Party K ... 589 (499)

Cyprus
Greek Zone (May 1991)
Democratic Rally R 35.8 20 (19)
Democratic Party (DIKO) CR 19.5 11 (16)
Socialist Party (EDEK) CL 10.9 7 (6)
Progressive Party of the
Working People K 30.6 18 (15)
Turkish Zone (December 1993)
National Unity Party CR 29.9 17
Democrat Party — 29.2 15
Communal Liberation Party CL 13.3 5
Republican Turkish Party S 24.2 13

Czech Republic (June 1992)
Association for the Republic-
Czech Republican Party ER 6.0 14
Governing coalition R-CR 41.9 105
Czech Social Democratic Party SD 6.5 16
Liberal Social Union (coalition) L 6.5 16
Left Bloc x 14.1 35
Moravia/Silesia regional party e 5.9 14
Others — 19.1 0

Denmark (September 1994)
Progress ER 6.4 11 (12)
Liberal R 23.3 42 (29)
Conservative People's R 15.0 27 (30)
Christian People's CR 1.8 0 (4)
Centre Democrats C 2.8 5 (9)
Radical Liberal C 4.6 8 (7)
Social Democrats SD 34.6 62 (69)
Socialist People's S 7.3 13 (15)
Unity List EL 3.1 6 (0)
Faeroe Islands and Greenland — — 4 (4)
Independents — 1.0 1 (0)

Djibouti (December 1992)
Popular Rally for Progress — 74.6 65 (65)
New Democratic Party — 25.4 0 —

Dominica (May 1990)
Dominica Freedom Party CR 49.4 11 (15)
Dominica United Workers' Party C 23.5 6 —
Labour Party L 26.9 4 (5)
Independents — ... 0 (1)

Dominican Republic (May 1994)
Social Christian Reformist Party CR ... 51 (40)
Dominican Revolutionary Party
and allies L ... 57 (36)
Dominican Liberation Party L ... 12 (44)

Ecuador (May 1994)
Conservative Party R ... 6 (6)
Republican Unity Party CR ... 3 (12)
Social Christian Party CR ... 26 (21)
Popular Democracy C ... 4 (5)
Roldosist Party — ... 11 (13)
Democratic Left SD ... 8 (7)
Democratic Popular Movement EL ... 8 (4)
Others — ... 11 (9)

Egypt (November-December 1990)
New Wafd Party R (Boycotted) (35)
National Democratic Party CR 79.6 348 (346)
Socialist Labour Party and allies L (Boycotted) (60)
National Progressive Unionist L 1.4 6 (0)
Independents — ... 83 (7)

El Salvador (March 1994)
Nationalist Republican Alliance
(Arena) R 45 39 (39)
National Conciliation Party R ... 4 (9)
Christian Democratic Party CR 16 18 (26)
Democratic Convergence L ... 1 (8)
Farabundo Martí National
Liberation Front L 29 21 (—)
Others — ... 1 (2)

Equatorial Guinea (November 1993)
Democratic Party — ... 68 (41)
Principal opposition parties — (Boycotted) —
Others — ... 12 —

Eritrea
Transitional government
from May 1993 — — —

Estonia (September 1992)
Pro Patria coalition CR 22.0 29 —
Estonian Popular Front C 12.2 15 (43)
Estonian National Independence C 8.8 10 —
Moderates CL 9.7 12 —
Safe Haven — 13.6 17 —
Others — 33.7 18 (62)

Ethiopia
Transitional government
since July 1991 — — —

Fiji (February 1994)
Ethnic Fijian seats e ... 37 (37)
Ethnic Indian seats e ... 27 (27)
Chinese/European seats e ... 4 (4)
Multiracial seat e ... 1 (1)
Rotuma Island e ... 1 (1)

Finland (March 1991)
National Coalition Party R 19.0 40 (53)
Swedish People's e 5.4 12 (12)
Centre Party C 24.4 55 (40)
Christian Union C 3.0 8 (5)
Rural Party C 4.8 7 (9)
Social Democratic L 21.7 48 (56)
Left-Wing Alliance S 9.9 19 (20)
Green Union g 6.7 10 (4)
Others — 5.2 2 (1)

France (March 1993; 1st round %s)
National Front ER 12.4 0 (1)
Rally for the Republic (RPR) R 20.4 247 (127)
Other right-wing parties R 4.7 24 (16)
Union for French Democracy (UDF) CR 19.1 213 (129)
Socialist Party S 17.6 54 (260)
Other left-wing parties L 4.5 16 (16)
Communist Party K 9.2 23 (27)
Environmentalist parties g 7.6 0 —
Other — 4.5 0 (1)

Gabon (September 1990)
Democratic Party — ... 66 (111)
Progress Party — ... 19 —
Rally of Woodcutters — ... 17 —
Others — ... 18 —

Gambia, The
Military government
since July 1994 — — —

Georgia (October 1992)
Parliament — — 235

Germany (October 1994)
Christian Social Union R 7.3 50 (51)
Christian Democratic Union CR 34.2 244 (268)
Free Democratic Party C 6.9 47 (79)
Social Democratic Party SD 36.4 252 (239)
Party of Democratic
Socialism x 4.4 30 (17)
Greens/Alliance '90 g 7.3 49 (8)
Others — 3.5 0 (0)

Ghana (December 1992)
National Democratic Congress — ... 189
Others — ... 11

Greece (October 1993)
Political Spring CR 4.9 10 —
New Democracy CR 39.3 111 (152)
Panhellenic Socialist Movement
(Pasok) S 46.9 170 (124)
Progressive Left Coalition L-K 2.9 0
Communist Party K 4.5 9 (21)
Others — 1.5 0 (3)

Grenada (March 1990)
Grenada United Labour Party R 28.3 4 (1)
National Democratic Congress C 34.6 7 (6)
National Party C 17.4 2 (5)
New National Party C 17.2 2 (3)

Guatemala (August 1994)
National Advancement Party R 25.3 24 (12)
Guatemalan Republican Front R 32.2 32 (...)
Solidarity Action Movement CR 3.2 0 (18)
Christian Democratic Party C 12.1 13 (28)
National Centre Union C 8.9 8 (41)
Others and independents — 18.3 3 (17)

Guinea
Transitional government
since January 1991 — — —

Guinea-Bissau (July 1994)
African Party for the Independence
of Guinea and Cape Verde — ... 62 (150)
Resistance Party — ... 19 —
Other opposition parties — ... 19 —

Guyana (October 1992)
United Force CR 1.2 1 (2)
People's National Congress Se 43.6 31 (42)
People's Progressive Party Se 52.3 32 (8)
Working Peoples Alliance L 1.7 1 (1)

Haiti (December 1990-January 1991)
National Front for Change
and Democracy (coalition) CL ... 27
Others — ... 54

Honduras (November 1993)
National Party R 43.0 55 (71)
Liberal Party CR 53.0 71 (55)
Others — 4.0 2 (2)

Hungary (May 1994)
Independent Smallholders R 8.8 26 (43)
Hungarian Democratic Forum CR 11.7 37 (165)
Christian Democratic People's Party CR 7.1 22 (21)
Alliance of Free Democrats CL 19.8 70 (92)
Federation of Young Democrats L 7.0 20 (21)
Hungarian Socialist Party x 33.0 209 (33)
Others and independents — 12.6 2 (11)

Iceland (April 1991)
Independence Party R 38.6 26 (18)
Progressive (Farmers') Party C 18.9 13 (13)
Social Democratic Party SD 15.5 10 (10)
People's Alliance x 14.4 9 (8)
Women's Alliance — 8.3 5 (6)
Others — 4.3 0 (8)

India (May 1991-February 1992)
Bharatiya Janata Rr ... 121 (88)
Congress (I) C ... 245 (192)
Janata Dal CL ... 58 (141)
Communist parties K ... 49 (43)
Others — ... 72 (59)

Indonesia (June 1992)
Golkar (Functional Groups) — 68 281 (299)
United Development Party r 17 63 (61)
Indonesian Democratic Party — 15 56 (40)

Iran (April-May 1992)
Consultative Assembly,
no parties since 1987 — ... 270

Iraq (April 1989)
Ba'th Party — 64
Others — 36 250

Ireland (November 1992)
Progressive Democrats R 4.7 10 (5)
Fianna Fail (Republican) C 39.1 68 (77)
Fine Gael (United Ireland) C 24.5 45 (55)
Labour Party SD 19.3 33 (16)
Democratic Left S 2.8 4 (7)
Green Alliance g 1.4 1 (1)
Others — 8.2 5 (5)

Israel (June 1992)
Moledet ER 2.4 3 (2)
Tzomet R 6.4 8 (2)
United Torah Judaism r 3.3 4 (7)
Shas Rr 4.9 6 (6)
Likud R 24.9 32 (40)
National Religious (Mafdal) CRr 5.0 6 (5)
Labour SD 34.6 44 (39)
Meretz SD 9.6 12 (10)
Arab (Democracy) e 1.6 2 (1)
Hadash K 2.4 3 (4)
Others — 4.9 0 (4)

Italy (March 1994)
National Alliance F 13.5 109 (34)
Northern League Re 8.4 113 (55)
Forza Italia R 21.0 112 (—)
Other rightist supporters R 3.5 32 (—)
Centrist parties (formerly
Christian Democratic Party) C 15.7 46 (206)
Democratic Alliance/Italian
Socialists SD/L 3.4 33 (119)
The Network (anti-Mafia) L 1.9 8 (12)
Democratic Party of the Left x 20.4 114 (107)
Communist Refoundation Party K 6.0 41 (35)
Green List g 2.7 11 (16)
Other leftist supporters L — 6 (—)
Others — 3.5 5 (46)

Jamaica (March 1993)
Jamaica Labour Party CL 39 8 (15)
People's National Party L 61 52 (45)

Japan (July 1993)
Liberal-Democratic Party R 36.7 225 (275)
Shinseito (Japan Renewal) R 10.1 55 —
Japan New Party R 8.1 36 —
New Party Sakigake R 2.6 13 —
Komeito (Clean Government) C 8.1 52 (45)
Democratic Socialist Party SD 3.5 15 (14)
United Social Democratic Party SD 0.7 4 (4)
Social Democratic Party S 15.4 70 (136)
Japan Communist Party L 7.7 15 (16)
Independents and others — 7.1 27 (22)

Jordan (November 1993)
Islamic Action Front r ... 16 (20)
Independent Islamic
fundamentalists r ... 5 (12)
Tribal/traditional candidates C ... 49
Independent centrists C ... 3 (17)
Leftists L ... 7 (11)

Kazakhstan (March 1994)
Presidential supporters — 60 ...
Others — 40 ...

Kenya (December 1992)
Kenya African National Union — ... 100 (188)
Forum for Restoration of
Democracy (2 wings) — ... 62 —
Democratic Party — ... 23 —
Others — ... 3 —

Kiribati (July 1994)
House of Assembly — ... 39

Korea, North (April 1990)
Korean Workers' Party K 99.8 687

Korea, South (March 1992)
United People's Party — 17.3 31
Democratic Liberal Party — 38.5 149
Democratic Party — 29.2 97
Others and independents — 15.0 22

Kuwait (October 1992)
Government supporters — ... 19
Fundamental opposition r ... 19
Liberal opposition — ... 12

Kyrgyzstan (February 1990)
Supreme Soviet — — 350

Laos (December 1992)
Lao People's Revolutionary Party
and allies K ... 85 (79)

Latvia (June 1993)
Ultranationalist parties ER 18.8 21 —
Latvia's Way
Latvian Farmers' Union CR 43.0 48 —
Popular Front — 2.6 0 (131)
Harmony for Latvia CL 12.0 13 —
Equal Rights CL 5.8 7 —
Communist Party K (banned) (59)
Others — 17.8 11 (11)

Lebanon (August-October 1992)
Christian members — ... 64
Muslim/Druze members — ... 64

Lesotho (March 1993)
Basotho Congress Party — 74.8 65
Basotho National Party — 22.7 0

Liberia
No effective government since
December 1993 — — —

Libya
Military government since
Sept. 1, 1969 — — —

Liechtenstein (October 1993)
Progressive Citizens' Party CR 41.3 11 (12)
Fatherland Union C 50.1 13 (11)
The Free List g 8.5 1 (2)

Lithuania (October-November 1992)
Christian Democrats and allies R 12.9 18
Reform Movement (Sajudis) CR 21.7 29
Social Democratic Party SD 6.2 8
Democratic Labour Party x 45.1 74
Others and independents — 14.1 14

Luxembourg (June 1994)
Christian Social People's Party CR 29.3 21 (22)
Democratic Party C 11.6 12 (11)
Socialist Workers' Party S 33.5 17 (18)
Communist Party K 2.8 0 (1)
Action Committee for Democracy
and Justice pen 7.1 5 (4)
Green Alternative g 10.2 5 (4)

Macedonia (October 1994)
Alliance of Macedonia x ... 95
Party of Democratic
Prosperity (Albanian) e ... 29
Others and independents — ... 25

Madagascar (June 1993)
Living Forces coalition — ... 75
Others — ... 59

Malawi (May 1994)
United Democratic Front e 46.4 84 (—)
Malawi Congress Party e 33.6 55 (136)
Alliance for Democracy e 18.9 36 (—)

Malaysia (October 1990)
Muslim Unity Movement CR ... 15 —
National Front (Barisan Nasional)
United Malays National
Organization e 71 (83)
Allied parties e 54.2 56 (65)
Democratic Action Party SD ... 20 (24)
Others and independents — ... 18 (5)

Maldives (December 1994)
Citizens' Assembly — ... 48

Mali (February-March 1992)
Alliance for Democracy in Mali — 48.4 76
Others — 51.6 40

Malta (February 1992)
Nationalist Party R 51.8 34 (35)
Labour Party SD 46.5 31 (34)

Marshall Islands (November 1991)
House of Representatives — — 33

Mauritania (March 1992)
Democratic and Social
Republican Party R 85 67
Others and independents — 15 12

Mauritius (September 1991)
Mauritian Social Movement
and allies CL ... 59 (49)
Opposition parties CL ... 3 (13)

Mexico (August 1994)
National Action Party (PAN) CR ... 119 (89)
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) C ... 300 (320)
Democratic Revolutionary Party L ... 71 (41)
Others — ... 10 (50)

Micronesia (March 1993)
Congress, no parties — ... 14

Moldova (February 1994)
Christian Democratic People's Front Re 7.5 9
Peasants/Intellectuals bloc Ce 9.2 11
Agrarian Democratic Party C-x 43.2 56
Socialist/Unity bloc xe 22.0 28
Others — 18.1 0

Monaco (January 1993)
National and Democratic Union — ... 15 (18)
Others — ... 3 (0)

Mongolia (June 1992)
Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party x 56.9 71 (33)
Others — 43.1 5 (20)

Morocco (June-September 1993)
Constitutional Union CR ... 54 (83)
National Democratic Party CR ... 24 (24)
Berber parties CRe ... 76 (47)
National Assembly of
Independents C ... 41 (61)
Democratic Bloc CL-EL ... 120 (85)
Others and independents — ... 18 (6)

Mozambique (October 1994)
Mozambique Liberation
Front (Frelimo) K 44.3 129 (250)
Mozambique National
Resistance (Renamo) — 37.8 112
Democratic Union — 5.2 9

Myanmar
Military government
since September 1988 — — —

Namibia (December 1994)
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance C 70 15 (21)
South West Africa People's
Organization (SWAPO) L 22 53 (41)
Others — 8 4 (10)

Nauru (November 1992)
Presidential supporters p — 9
Presidential opponents p — 9

Nepal (November 1994)
National Democratic parties R ... 20 (4)
Nepali Congress Party C ... 83 (110)
Communist parties K ... 88 (82)
Others and independents — ... 14 (9)

Netherlands, The (May 1994)
Christian Democratic Appeal CR 22.2 34 (54)
People's Party for Freedom
and Democracy CR 19.9 31 (22)
Democrats 66 CL 15.5 24 (12)
Labour Party SD 24.0 37 (49)
Green Left g 3.5 5 (6)
General Union of the Elderly pen 4.5 6 (—)
Others — 10.4 13 (7)

New Zealand (November 1993)
New Zealand First — 8.4 2 —
National Party CR 35.0 50 (67)
Labour Party CL 34.7 45 (29)
Alliance Party (coalition) L 18.2 2 (1)

Nicaragua (February 1990)
National Opposition Union CR 54.7 51
Sandinista National Liberation Front L 40.8 39
Others — 4.5 2

Niger (February 1993)
Government Coalition — ... 50
Former government party — ... 29
Others — ... 4

Nigeria
Military government since
November 1993

Norway (September 1993)
Progress Party R 6.3 10 (22)
Conservative Party R 16.9 28 (37)
Christian People's Party CR 7.9 13 (14)
Centre Party CR 16.8 32 (11)
Labour Party SD 37.0 67 (63)
Socialist Left S 7.9 13 (17)
Others — 7.2 2 (1)

Oman
Consultative Council (advisory body) — — —

Pakistan (October 1993)
Religious parties Rr ... 10 (6)
Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) — 41.0 72 (105)
Pakistan Muslim League (Junejo) — ... 6
Pakistan People's Party CL 38.0 86 (45)
Mohajir Qaumi Movement e (Boycotted) (15)
Other and independents — ... 27 (30)

Palau (November 1992)
House of Delegates — — 14

Panama (May 1994)
Democratic Revolutionary Party
and allies — ... 36
Opposition bloc — ... 30
Papa Egoró — ... 6

Papua New Guinea (June 1992)
United Party (Pangu Pati) p ... 22 (26)
People's Democratic Movement p ... 15 (18)
Others p ... 40 (41)
Independents — ... 31 (21)

Paraguay (May 1993)
Colorado Party R 43.0 38 (48)
Authentic Radical Liberal Party CL 35.1 33 (19)
National Encounter coalition — 17.1 9 —
Others — 4.8 0 (5)

Peru (November 1992)
Christian Popular Party R 7.5 8
Liberal Party R — — (60)
Popular Action CR (Boycotted)
New Majority-Change 90 — 37.0 44 (32)
American Popular Revolutionary
Alliance CL (Boycotted) (52)
Others — 55.5 28 (36)

Philippines (May 1992)
National People's Coalition R ... 48
Liberal Party C ... 15
National Union of
Christian Democrats — ... 51
Democratic Filipino Struggle — ... 87

Poland (September 1993)
Confederation for an
Independent Poland R 5.8 22 (46)
Non-Party Bloc to Support Reform R 5.4 16 —
Democratic Union CL 10.6 74 (62)
Labour Union L 7.3 41 (4)
Democratic Left Alliance x 20.4 171 (60)
Polish Peasant Party x 15.4 132 (48)
German minority organizations e 0.5 4 (7)
Others — 34.6 0 (233)

Portugal (October 1991)
Social Democratic Party C 50.4 135 (148)
Socialist Party L 29.3 72 (60)
Communist alliance K 8.8 17 (31)
Other parties — 11.5 6 (11)

Qatar
Consultative Council (advisory body) — — —

Romania (September 1992)
Romanian National Unity Party ERe 7.7 30
Greater Romania e 3.9 16
Democratic Convention of Romania CR 20.0 82
Democratic National Salvation Front x 27.7 117
National Salvation Front x 10.2 43
Hungarian Democratic Union e 7.5 27
Others — 23.0 13

Russia (December 1993)
Liberal Democratic Party F 22.8 64
Russia's Democratic Choice R 15.4 66
Party of Russian Unity
and Accord CR 6.8 19
Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin bloc C 7.8 27
Women of Russia C 8.1 23
Democratic Party C 5.5 15
Communist Party K 12.3 48
Agrarian Party of Russia K 7.9 33
Other parties — 13.4 22
Independents elected from
constituency lists — — 127

Rwanda
Interim legislature
from November 1994 — — —

Saint Kitts and Nevis (November 1993)
People's Action Movement CL 33.6 4 (6)
Nevis Reformation Party CL 8.5 1 (2)
St Kitts-Nevis Labour Party L 43.8 4 (2)
Concerned Citizens' Movement — 10.9 2 (1)

Saint Lucia (April 1992)
United Workers' Party C 54.9 11 (9)
St. Lucia Labour Party CL 41.9 6 (8)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (February 1994)
New Democratic Party C 54.6 12 (15)
St. Vincent Labour Party L 26.0 2 (0)
Movement for National Unity L 17.3 1 (0)

San Marino (May 1993)
Christian Democrats CR 41.4 26 (27)
Socialist Party S 23.7 14 (7)
Progressive Democratic Party x 18.6 11 (18)
Popular Democratic Alliance — 7.7 4 —
Other parties — 8.6 5 (8)

São Tomé and Príncipe (October 1994)
Party of Democratic
Convergence C 17 14 (33)
Movement for Liberation L 43 27 (21)
Independent Democratic Action — 26 14 —

Saudi Arabia
Consultative Council (advisory body) — — —

Senegal (May 1993)
Socialist Party SD 56.6 84 (103)
Senegalese Democratic Party — 30.2 27 (17)
Let Us Unite Senegal EL 4.9 3 —
Other parties — 8.3 6 —

Seychelles (July 1993)
People's Progressive Front L 57.5 28 (23)
Others — 42.5 5 —

Sierra Leone
Military government
since May 1992 — — —

Singapore (August 1991)
People's Action Party CR 61 77 (80)
Democratic Party CL 12 3 (1)
Workers' Party L 14 1 (0)

Slovakia (September-October 1994)
Slovak National Party Re 5.4 9 (15)
Christian Democratic Movement CR 10.1 17 (18)
Movement for a Democratic
Slovakia — 35.0 61 (74)
Democratic Left x 10.4 18 (29)
Hungarian minority coalition e 10.2 17 (14)
Others — 28.9 28 (0)

Slovenia (December 1992)
Slovenian National Party ER 10.2 12
Christian Democrats CR 14.5 15
Slovenian People's Party — 8.7 10
Associated List coalition — 13.6 14
Democratic Party C 5.1 6
Liberal Democratic Party CL 23.5 22
Social Democratic Party SD 3.3 4
Greens of Slovenia g 3.7 5
Others — 17.4 0

Solomon Islands (May 1993)
Government Alliance p ... 24
Opposition party p ... 23

Somalia
No effective government
since January 1991 — — —

South Africa (April 1994)
Freedom Front ER 2.2 9
National Party CR 20.4 82
Inkatha Freedom Party e 10.5 43
Democratic Party C 1.7 7
African National Congress CL 62.7 252
Pan-Africanist Congress EL 1.2 5
Others — 1.3 2

Spain (June 1993)
Popular Party R 34.8 141 (107)
Democratic and Social Centre C 1.7 0 (14)
Basque Nationalist Party Ce 1.2 5 (5)
Canary Islands coalition Ce 0.9 4 —
Convergence and Union (Catalan) CLe 5.0 17 (18)
Socialist Workers' Party S 38.7 159 (175)
United Left L-K 9.6 18 (17)
Herri Batasuna (Basque radicals) ELe 0.9 2 (4)
Others — 7.2 4 (10)

Sri Lanka (August 1994)
United National Party SD ... 94 (125)
Muslim Congress r ... 7 (4)
People's Alliance — ... 105
Others and independents — ... 19 (96)

Sudan, The
Transitional government
since February 1992 — — —

Suriname (May 1991)
National Democratic Party — 21.8 12 (3)
Front for Democracy and Development
(four-party coalition) — 54.2 30 (42)
Democratic Alternative '91 — 16.7 9 —

Swaziland (September-October 1993)
House of Assembly, no parties — — 55

Sweden (September 1994)
New Democracy R 1.2 0 (24)
Christian Democrats R 4.1 14 (27)
Moderate (Conservative) Party R 22.4 80 (80)
Centre (Agrarian) Party CR 7.7 27 (31)
People's (Liberal) Party C 7.2 25 (33)
Social Democrats S 45.3 161 (138)
Left Party x 6.2 22 (16)
Greens g 5.0 18 (0)

Switzerland (October 1991)
Christian Democrats R 18.3 36 (42)
Liberal Party R 3.0 10 (9)
Swiss People's CR 11.9 25 (25)
Radical Democrats C 21.0 44 (51)
Social Democrats SD 18.5 41 (41)
Green Party g 6.1 14 (9)
Others — 21.2 30 (23)

Syria (August 1994)
National Progressive Front
Ba'th Party and allies — ... 167 (166)
Independents — ... 83 (84)

Taiwan (December 1992)
Nationalist (Kuomintang) — 53 94 (72)
Democratic Progressive Party — 31 52 (21)
Others and Independents — 16 15 (8)

Tajikistan (March 1990)
Supreme Soviet — — 230

Tanzania (October 1990)
Revolutionary Party
of Tanzania (CCM) — ... 204 (169)

Thailand (September 1992)
Pro-military parties:
Thai Nation — 21.4 77
National Development — 16.7 60
Others — 1.1 4
Pro-democrary parties:
Democrat — 21.9 79
New Aspiration — 14.2 51
Righteous Force — 13.1 47
Solidarity — 2.2 8
Others — 9.4 34

Togo (February 1994)
Rally of the Togolese People — ... 35
Action Committee for Renewal — ... 34
Union for Democracy — ... 6
Others — ... 3

Tonga (February 1993)
Pro-Democracy Movement — ... 6 (6)
Others — ... 3 (3)

Trinidad and Tobago (December 1991)
People's National Movement C 45.1 21 (3)
National Alliance for
Reconstruction (four parties) C 24.4 2 (33)
United National Congress L 29.1 13 —

Tunisia (March 1994)
Government party CL 97.7 144 (141)
Others — 2.3 19 (0)

Turkey (October 1991)
Nationalist Labour Party ER 19 —
Welfare Party Rr 16.4 43 (0)
True Path Party CR 26.2 178 (59)
Motherland Party CR 23.3 115 (292)
Social Democratic Populist CL 66 (99)
People's Labour Party e 20.1 22 —
Democratic Left Party CL 10.4 7 (0)

Turkmenistan (December 1994)
Assembly — — 50

Tuvalu (November 1993)
Parliament, no parties — — 12

Uganda
Military regime from July 1985 — — —

Ukraine (March-April 1994)
Extreme nationalist parties ERe ... 5
Less extreme nationalist parties CRe ... 15
Ukrainian Popular Movement (Rukh) Ce ... 20
Centrist parties C ... 17
Communist Party and allies K-EL ... 118
Unaffiliated members — ... 163

United Arab Emirates
Federal National Council
(advisory body) — — —

United Kingdom (April 1992)
Democratic Unionists Re 0.3 3 (3)
Conservative Party CR 41.9 336 (375)
Liberal Democrats CL 17.9 20 (22)
Labour Party L 34.4 271 (229)
Scottish National Party e 1.9 3 (3)
Plaid Cymru (Welsh Nationalists) e 0.5 4 (3)
Ulster Unionists — 0.8 9 (9)
Social Democratic and Labour
Party (Northern Ireland) CLe 0.6 4 (3)
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) ELe 0.2 0 (1)
Other — 1.5 1 (2)

United States (November 1994)
Republican CR ... 230 (175)
Democratic C ... 204 (259)
Other — ... 1 (1)

Uruguay (November 1994)
National (Blanco) Party C 31.4 31 (39)
Colorado Party C 32.5 32 (30)
New Space SD 5.1 5 (9)
Progressive Encounter
(also called Broad Front) SD-EL 30.8 31 (21)

Uzbekistan (December 1994)
People's Democratic Party x ... 205
National Progress Party — ... 6

Vanuatu (December 1991)
Union of Moderate Parties CR ... 19 (20)
National United Party CR ... 10 —
Vanua'aku Pati — ... 12 (26)
Others — ... 5 (0)

Venezuela (December 1993)
COPEI (Social Christians) CR-CL ... 54 (67)
Democratic Action SD ... 55 (97)
National Convergence (—)
Movement to Socialism L ... 50 (18)
The Radical Cause EL ... 40 (3)
Others — ... 0 (16)

Vietnam (July 1992)
National Assembly — ... 395

Western Samoa (April 1991)
Human Rights Protection Party — ... 30 (27)
National Development Party — ... 14 (19)
Independents — ... 3 (1)

Yemen (April 1993)
Yemeni Alliance for Reform Rr ... 62
General People's Congress — ... 123
Yemeni Socialist Party K ... 56
Others and independents — ... 60

Yugoslavia (December 1992)
Serbian Radical Party Fe 24.4 34 (33)
Serbian Democratic Movement C 18.7 20 —
Democratic Party C 6.5 5 —
Socialist Party of Serbia xe 34.2 47 (73)
Democratic Party of Socialists
of Montenegro xe 3.0 17 (23)
Democratic Community (Hungarian) e 2.4 3 (2)
Others — 10.8 12 (6)

Zaire
Transitional government
from April 1994 — — —

Zambia (October 1991)
Movement for Multiparty
Democracy — 75.8 125 —
United National Independence — 24.2 25 (125)

Zimbabwe (March 1990)
Zimbabwe African National Union S 75.4 117
Other parties — 17.5 3

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Political parties —    Israel s political parties, many with roots in late 19th and early 20th century Europe, fall into several distinct categories, many with cross cutting ideological and denominational lines. These categories of parties include secular… …   Historical Dictionary of Israel

  • Political parties —    Owing to the country’s seven decades as a one party totalitarian state, the status of political parties in Russia is complex and protean. In 1990, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) abandoned its monopoly on political… …   Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation

  • political parties — Formal organizations for representing the aims and interests of different socio economic forces in the political sphere although not all societies have a party political system of government. Political parties are the organizational means by… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • political parties —    Spanish political parties are characterized by several factors, most of which can be explained by the legacy of the Franco regime and the nature of the subsequent élite led transition to democracy. These factors are: low levels of membership… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture

  • Political Parties —    A centralized parliament of sorts existed in the Habsburg Empire after 1861. Delegates, however, came from the provincial estates, which chose them. These people were not representatives of organized political parties but rather of four… …   Historical dictionary of Austria

  • Political parties —    The constitution of the new Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1814–1815 limited suffrage to a very small group of rich and propertied people. The political elite remained an oligarchy, even after the proclamation of a new constitution in 1848… …   Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands

  • Political Parties 2 — ▪ Table Political Parties       Parlia     Voting  mentary Country Affili strength represen   Name of party ation  (%)  tation  Afghanistan           Multifactional warfare from January 1993     Albania (May–June 1996)           Democratic Party… …   Universalium

  • Political Parties 3 — ▪ Table Parlia Voting mentary Country Affili strength represen Name of party ation (%) tation Afghanistan Interim parliament since January 1993 250 Albania (March 1992) Democratic Party CR 62.1 92 (75) Social Democratic Party …   Universalium

  • Political Parties 1 — ▪ Table Parlia Voting mentary Country Affili strength represen Name of party ation (%) tation Afghanistan Multifactional warfare from January 1993 …   Universalium

  • Political Parties —    During the 1990s the Liberals (Parti Réformateur Libéral) entered the ruling coalition in the Brussels regional government despite being in opposition in the other regional legislatures and at the federal level. It has garnered about 34… …   Historical Dictionary of Brussels


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.