Notable Civil Engineering Projects


Notable Civil Engineering Projects
▪ 2001

Notable Civil Engineering Projects (in work or completed, 2000)
 
Name Location   Year of completion Notes
Airports Terminal area (sq m)  
Inchon International Inchon, South Korea (near Seoul) 369,000 2001 Landfill between islands; may be northeast Asia hub
Athens International Spata, Greece 209,000 2001 Europe's biggest airport project
JFK Int'l (new terminal) Queens, New York City, N.Y. 140,000 2001 Connected by 13.5-km light rail to Manhattan by 2003
S.F. Int'l (new int'l terminal) San Francisco, Calif. 120,000 2000 Opened December 10; 7-story bldg.; largest int'l terminal in N. Am.
Ataturk Int'l (new terminal) Istanbul, Turkey ? 2000 Opened January 10; will withstand magnitude-8.5 earthquake
Great Man-Made River (phase 2) Libyan interior to Tripoli area 1,650,000 2001 Vast pipeline system transferring water from Saharan aquifers; phase 1 to Benghazi area (1983-93); phase 2 begun 1990
Bridges Length (main span; m)  
Carquinez (#3) Crockett, Calif.-Vallejo, Calif. 728 ? Begun 2000; first major U.S. suspension bridge since 1965
Rion Antirion Patrai, Greece (across Gulf of Corinth) 560 2005 Multicable-stayed; complex deepwater foundations
Yongjong Grand Inchon, S.Kor. 500 2000 World's first two-story self-anchored suspension bridge
Øresund Copenhagen, Den.-Malmö, Swed. 490 2000 Opened July 1; 16.4-km road/rail link; tunnel, artificial island, bridge
Wadi Leban Riyadh Ring Road, Saudi Arabia 405 2000 First cable-stayed bridge in Saudi Arabia
William Natcher Owensboro, Ky.-near Rockport, Ind. 365 2002 To be longest cable-stayed bridge over U.S. inland waterway
Rosario-Victoria Rosario to Victoria, Argentina 350 2002 Bridges/viaducts across 59-km-wide Paraná wetlands
Al-Firdan Al-Firdan, Egypt ? 2000 Longest (640 m) movable steel bridge in world; spans Suez Canal
Buildings Height (m)  
Lotte World II Pusan, S.Kor. 464.5 2005 Begun December 2000; will be world's tallest
Shanghai World Financial Centre Shanghai, China 460? ? Ground broken in 1997; construction on hold
Taipei Financial Centre Taipei, Taiwan 448 2003 Begun 1999; will be world's second tallest to rooftop (with spire, 508 m)
Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong, China 420 2003 Begun 2000; to be world's fourth tallest building
Fairwell International Centre Xiamen, China 397 2002 Construction begun in March 1998
Plaza Rakyat Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 382 ? Will be tallest reinforced-concrete complex; construction delayed
Emirates Tower One Dubayy, U.A.E. 350 2000 World's ninth tallest building
Migdal (Tower) Egged Tel Aviv, Israel 326 2003 Begun July 2000
Torre Generali Panama City, Panama 318 2003 Begun mid-2000; will be Latin America's tallest building
City Area (ha)  
Putrajaya near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 4,400 2005 Planned national capital begun 1996; first staff moved in June 1999
Dams Crest length (m)  
Eastside Reservoir: East/Dam Hemet, Calif. 3,380 2000 Dedicated March 18; almost doubles southern California's surface storage capacity; reservoir's new name is Diamond Valley Lake
Eastside Reservoir: West/Dam Hemet, Calif. 2,736 2000
Birecik Dam Euphrates River, Turkey (30 km from Syria) 2,507 2000 Begun 1996; last major dam on Euphrates in Turkey
Three Gorges west of Yichang, China 1,983 2009 World's largest hydroelectric project; begun 1993
Xiaolangdi Huang Ho (Yellow River), China 1,667 2000 Hydroelectricity (from January 2000) and flood control
San Roque Multi-Purpose Agno River, Luzon, Phil. 1,100 2002 Irrigation and flood control; tallest earth-and-rock-fill dam in Asia
Mohale (Lesotho Highlands Water Project, phase 1B) Maluti Mountains, Lesotho-South Africa 600 2001 Begun 1989; phase 1A inaugurated 1998 (first transfer of water to S.Af.); expect second transfer of water in 2003
Sardar Sarovar Project Narmada River, Madhya Pradesh, India ? ? Irrigation for Gujarat, electricity; construction halted 1995, reapproved 2000
Indus Highway Karachi-Peshawar, Pak. 1,225 ? 61% complete as of October 2000
Railways (Heavy) Length (km)  
Guangdong-Hainan Zhanjiang, China-southern tip of Hainan 568 ? Begun September 2000; rail with container ship; mostly completed 2002
Western coastal Libya Tripoli area 191 2003 Begun 2000; built by China; additional lines planned
Trans-Isthmus Colón-Panama City, Pan. 89 2000 Inaugurated in February; full operation will be delayed
Kyongui (reconnection) Munsan, S.Kor.-Kaesong, N.Kor. 24 2001 Begun September 2000; complete 499-km connection by 2001
Railways (High-Speed) Length (km)  
Kyongbu Seoul-Pusan, S.Kor. 412 2004 Connects two largest cities; first stretch inaugurated December 1999
German High Speed (third line) Frankfurt-Cologne, Ger. 226 2001 Connects Ruhr to Frankfurt International Airport
Italy High Speed (second line) Rome-Naples, Italy 222 2004 Begun 1994; part of planned 1,300-km high-speed network
Belgium High Speed Brussels-Liège, Belg. 95 2002 Extension to Cologne, Ger., planned for 2005
Acela Express Boston, Mass.-Washington, D.C. ? 2000 First scheduled service in December; maximum speed is 240 km/h
Subways/Metros/Light Rails Length (m)  
Oporto Light Rail Oporto, Port. 70,000 2003 Europe's largest total rail system project; first line to be opened in 2001
Copenhagen Metro Copenhagen, Den. 22,000 2001-04 Line 1: 2001; most extensive driverless system in world
Athens Subway (parts of lines 2 + 3) Athens, Greece 18,200 2000 21 new stations; scheduled extensions through 2004
Tren Urbano (phase 1) San Juan, P.R. 17,200 2002 Bayamón (western suburbs) to north San Juan; 60% elevated
Manila Light Rail Manila, Phil. 16,800 2000 Built over congested auto routes; from Quezon City to central Manila
Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Bayonne to Jersey City, N.J. 12,000 2000 Opened in April; future extension to Hoboken (in 2002) and Weehawken
Tehran Subway Tehran, Iran 9,400 2000 First in Persian Gulf; central city to western suburb; extensions planned
Istanbul Subway (phase 1) Istanbul, Turkey 7,500 2000 For congested old city north of Golden Horn; extension planned
Tunnels Length (m)  
Apennine Range tunnels (9) Bologna-Florence, Italy (high-speed railway) 66,000 2006 Begun 1996; longest tunnel, 18.6 km; tunnels to cover 90% of railway
Lærdal Lærdal-Aurland, Nor. 24,500 2000 World's longest road tunnel; last key road link between Oslo and Bergen
Qinling between Xi'an and Ankang, China 18,457 1999 World's ninth largest railway tunnel; railway to open in 2001
A86 Ring Road around Paris, France 17,700 2006 Two tunnels (to east [10,100 m], to west [7,600 m])
Pinglin Highway near Taipei, Taiwan 12,900 2003 Twin tunnels under Sheuhshan Range; Taipei-I-lan expressway link
Oslofjord Connection Drøbak, Nor. (30 km south of Oslo) 7,230 2000 First tunnel between two heavily populated sides of Oslofjord
Anton Anderson Memorial Whittier, Alaska 4,000 2000 North America's longest road tunnel and new piggyback rail link between Anchorage, Alaska, and Seattle, Wash.; opened in June
Øresund Copenhagen, Den.-Malmö, Swed. 3,750 2000 Twin tunnels; world-record immersed tube
Urban Developments Area (sq m)  
Potsdamer Platz Berlin, Ger. 620,000 2000 19 buildings, including Helmut Jahn-designed seven-building Sony Centre
Central Artery/Tunnel Boston, Mass.   2004 Extremely complex highway/tunnel/bridge project begun in 1991
Miscellaneous Area (sq m)  
Steel Dragon roller coaster Nagashima (near Nagoya), Japan   2000 Opened August 1; tallest, longest, fastest in world, and tallest first drop
See as table:
      1 m = 3.28 ft; 1 km = 0.62 mi; 1 ha = 2.47 ac

▪ 2000

Notable Civil Engineering Projects (in work or completed, 1999)
 
Name Location   Year of completion Notes
Airports Terminal area (sq m)  
Beijing Capital International Shunyi county, China 336,000 1958 Major expansion as of October 1999
Shanghai Pudong International Pudong, China 280,000 1999 Phase I opened September 16; to be Shanghai's primary airport
Athens International Spata, Greece 209,000 2001 Europe's biggest airport project
Inchon International Inchon, South Korea (near Seoul) ? 2001 Landfill between islands in Yellow Sea; includes seaport
Great Man-Made River Project interior to coastal Libya (many sites) 1,900,000 2007 Begun 1991; vast pipeline system transferring water from Sahara
Lesotho Highlands Water Project Maluti Mountains, Lesotho-South Africa 82,000   2020? Phase 1 (of 5) water transfer; inaugurated Jan. 22, 1998
Bridges Length (main span; m)  
Jiangyin Yangtze Jiangsu province, China 1,385 1999 Fourth longest in world (suspension) upon completion in September
Chesapeake Bay (#2) Norfolk, Va.-Virginia's eastern shore 1,158 1999 New bridges/trestles parallel first C.B. link; opened April 19
Tatara Ohashi Honshu-Shikoku, Japan 890 1999 World record cable-stayed; part of bridge chain; opened to traffic May 1
Rion Antirion Patrai, Greece (across Gulf of Corinth) 560 2005 Multicable-stayed; complex deepwater foundations
Yongjong Grand Inchon, South Korea 500 2000 World's first two-story, self-anchored suspension bridge
Øresund Copenhagen, Den.-Malmö, Sweden 490 2000 16.4 km road/rail link; tunnel, artificial island, bridge
Rosario-Victoria Rosario to Victoria, Argentina 350 2002 Bridges/viaducts across 59-km wide Paraná wetlands
Al-Firdan Al-Firdan, Egypt ? 2000 Longest (640 m) movable steel bridge in world; spans Suez Canal
Maria Valeria Esztergom, Hungary-Sturovo, Slovakia ? 2001 Replication of 104-year-old Danube bridge destroyed in 1944
Buildings Height (m)  
Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai, China 460 2003 Will be world's tallest; ground broken in 1997; construction delayed
Jin Mao ("Golden Prosperity") Shanghai, China 420 1999 Topped out Aug. 28, 1997; grand opening January 1999
Xiamen Fairwell International Center Xiamen, China 397 2002 Construction begun in March 1999
Plaza Rakyat Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 382 1999 World record reinforced-concrete complex with office tower
Emirates Tower One Dubayy, U.A.E. 350 2000 Will be world's ninth tallest
Millennium Dome Greenwich, London, U.K. 50 1999 World's largest dome; opened Dec. 31, 1999
Reichstag (reconstruction) Berlin, Germany — 1999 Destroyed by fire in 1933; opened in April
Frauenkirche (reconstruction) Dresden, Germany — 2006 Baroque Lutheran church firebombed in 1945
City Area (ha)  
Putrajaya near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 4,400 2005 Planned national capital; first staff moved in June 1999
Dams Crest length (m)  
Eastside Reservoir: East/Dam Hemet, Calif., U.S. 3,380 1999 Almost doubles southern California's surface storage capacity
Eastside Reservoir: West/Dam Hemet, Calif., U.S. 2,736 1999
Three Gorges (stage 1) west of Yichang, China 1,983 2009 World's largest hydroelectric project; stage 1: 1997, 2: 2003, 3: 2009
Xiaolangdi Huang Ho (Yellow River), China 1,667 2001 Flood, ice, silt control; irrigation; power
San Roque Multi-Purpose Agno River, Luzon, Phil. 1,100 2003 Irrigation and flood control; tallest in Asia
Seven Oaks Santa Ana River, Calif., U.S. 802 1999 Flood control; sixth highest dam in the U.S.
Ertan Yalong River, China 775 1999-2000 Second largest hydroelectric power project in China
Sardar Sarovar Project Narmada River, Madhya Pradesh, India ? ? Irrigation for Gujarat, electricity; construction halted 1995, restarted 1999
Indus Highway Karachi-Peshawar, Pakistan 1,205 ? Islamabad-Lahore (1997), Islamabad-Peshawar (begun 1998)
Railways (Heavy) Length (km)  
South Sinkiang Kashgar (Kashi)-Korla, China 975 1999 First rail link to Kashgar in extreme west Sinkiang
Guangdong-Hainan mainland China-Hainan 543 2001 First rail link to Hainan
Ferronorte Paraná River-Alto Taquari, Mato Grosso, Brazil 410 1999 Agricultural exports from Brazilian interior through Santos
Trans-Isthmus Colón-Panama City, Panama 89 2000 Complete overhaul for container traffic
Railways (High Speed) Length (km)  
Kyongbu Seoul-Pusan, South Korea 431 2004 Connects two largest cities; one-third complete in mid-1999
Italy High Speed Rome-Naples, Italy 222 2004 Begun 1994; part of planned 1,300 km high-speed network
German High Speed (third line) Frankfurt-Cologne, Germany 177 2002 Connects Ruhr to Frankfurt International Airport
Belgium High Speed Brussels-Liège, Belgium 95 2002 Extension to Cologne, Germany, planned for 2005
Acela Express Boston, Mass.-Washington, D.C. ? 1999 Initial service, late 1999; scheduled service at intended speed, spring 2000
Subways/Metros/Light Rails Length (m)  
Oporto Light Rail Oporto, Portugal 70,000 2003 Europe's largest total rail system project; 1st line to be opened in 2001
Madrid Metro Madrid, Spain 56,300 1999 37 new stations between January 1998 and October 1999 (20 in 1999)
Copenhagen Metro Copenhagen, Denmark 22,000 2001-2004 Line 1: 2001; most extensive driverless system in world
Bangkok Metro Bangkok, Thailand 20,700 1999 First line opened Dec. 5, 1999
Shanghai Metro (line 2) Shanghai, China 17,800 1999 Opened Oct. 1, 1999
Manila Light Rail Manila, Philippines 16,800 2000 Built over extremely congested auto routes
London Metro (Jubilee Extension) London, England 15,980 1999 Largest addition to underground in 25 years; final stage opened in November
Cairo Metro (line 2) Cairo, Egypt 5,000 1999 First line under Nile opened in April; to Giza in 2000
Tunnels Length (m)  
Apennine Range tunnels (9) Bologna-Florence, Italy (high-speed railway) 66,000 2006 Begun 1996; longest tunnel, 18.6 km; tunnels to cover 90% of railway
Lærdal Lærdal-Aurland, Norway 24,500 2001 World's longest road tunnel; last key road link between Oslo and Bergen
A86 Ring Road around Paris 17,700 2005 Two tunnels; preserves Seine valley beauty
Bosporus Istanbul, Turkey 13,300 2003 Rail tunnel to ease bridge traffic pressure
Pinglin Highway near Taipei, Taiwan 12,900 2003 Twin tunnels under Sheuhshan Range; Taipei-I-lan expressway link
North Cape Magerøy Sound, Norway 6,820 1999 World's longest subsea road tunnel
Maynard Mountain (enlarged) near Whittier, Alaska 4,000 2000 First roadway and new piggyback rail link between Anchorage, Alaska, and Seattle, Washington
Øresund Copenhagen, Denmark-Malmö, Sweden 3,750 2000 Twin tunnels; world-record immersed tube
Urban Developments Area (sq m)  
Potsdamer Platz Berlin, Germany 620,000 2000 19 buildings
Central Artery/Tunnel Boston, Mass., U.S.   2004 Extremely complex highway/tunnel/bridge project begun in 1991
See as table:
      1 m = 3.28 ft; 1 km = 0.62 mi; 1 ha = 2.47 ac

▪ 1999

Notable Civil Engineering Projects (in work or completed, 1998)
 
Name Location   Year of completion Notes
Airports Area (ha)  
Kuala Lumpur International Sepang, Malaysia      10,000 1998 Includes high-speed rail link to Kuala Lumpur; opened June 30, 1998
Hong Kong International Chek Lap Kok Island, Hong Kong        1,248 1998 World's largest artificial island; bridges + tunnel links
Seoul International Inchon, S.Kor.        1,095 2001 Landfill between islands in Yellow Sea; includes seaport
Oslo International Gardermoen, Nor.             ? 1998 Opened Oct. 8, 1998
Great Man-Made River interior to coastal Libya (many sites) 1,900,000 2007 Begun 1991; 1,900,000-phase 1 pipeline; phase 3 begun 1998
Lesotho Highlands Water Project Maluti Mountains, Lesotho-South Africa      82,000   2025? Phase 1 (of 5) water transfer; inaugurated Jan. 22, 1998
Bridges Length (main span; m)  
Akashi Kaikyo (Pearl) Akashi-Awaji Island, Japan        1,991 1998 World record (suspension) upon completion on April 5, 1998
Great Belt (Store Bælt) East Halsskov-Knudshoved, Den.        1,624 1998 World's second longest (suspension) upon completion on June 14, 1998
Jiangyin Yangtze Jiangsu province, China        1,385 1999 Fourth longest in world (suspension) upon completion
Chesapeake Bay (#2) Norfolk, Va.-Virginia's eastern shore        1,158 1999 New bridges/trestles parallel first C.B. link
Tatara Ohashi Honshu-Shikoku, Japan           890 1998 World-record cable-stayed; part of bridge chain
Rion Antirion Patrai, Greece (across Gulf of Corinth)           560 2003 Multicable-stayed; complex deepwater foundations
Øresund Copenhagen, Den.-Malmö, Swed.           490 2000 16.4-km road-rail link; tunnel, artificial island, bridge
Ting Kau Hong Kong mainland-Tsing Yi Island           475 1998 1 of 3 bridges to new airport; stunning cable-stayed design
Vasco da Gama Lisbon, Port.           420 1998 Total length 17.2 km; Europe's longest road bridge; opened Feb. 29, 1998
Bangabandhu (Jamuna Multipurpose) Sirajganj-Bhuapur, Bangladesh             99 1998 Total length 4.8 km; first link between NW & E Bangladesh
Buildings Height (m)  
World Financial Centre Shanghai, China           460 2002 Will be world's tallest; groundbreaking 1997, delayed 1998
Jin Mao ("Golden Prosperity") Shanghai, China           420 1999 Topped out Aug. 28, 1997; grand opening January 1999
Plaza Rakyat Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia           382 1999 World-record reinforced-concrete complex with office tower
Millennium Dome Greenwich, London, Eng.             50 1999 Will be world's largest dome; to open Dec. 31, 1999
Reichstag (reconstruction) Berlin, Ger.             — 1999 Fire destroyed (1933); transparent cupola to be landmark
European Parliament building Strasbourg, France             ? 1998 Futuristic, dome-shaped deputy chamber
Frauenkirche (reconstruction) Dresden, Ger.             — 2006 Baroque Lutheran church firebombed 1945
City Area (ha)  
Putrajaya near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia        4,400 1998 Planned national capital; government transfer 2000
Dams Crest length (m)  
Yacyretá Multipurpose Paraná River, Argentina-Paraguay      69,600 1998 Hydroelectric power, navigation, irrigation; first stage July 7, 1998
Eastside Reservoir East/Domenigoni Hemet, Calif., U.S.        3,380 1999 Reservoir = 800,000 ac-ft
Eastside Reservoir West/Domenigoni Hemet, Calif., U.S.        2,736 1999 Reservoir = 800,000 ac-ft
Three Gorges west of Yichang, China        1,983 2009 Stage 1: 1993-97; 2: 1998-2003; 3: 2004-09
Xiaolangdi Huang Ho (Yellow River), China        1,667 2001 Flood, ice, silt control; irrigation; power
Lower Agno San Roque, Luzon, Phil.        1,100 2003 Irrigation and flood control
Seven Oaks Santa Ana River, Calif., U.S.           802 1999 Flood control
Longtan Hongshui River, China           800      ? Pumped storage power facility
Ertan Yalong River, China           775 2000 Second largest hydroelectric power project in China
Nam Theun 2 Upper Theun River, Laos             ? 2004 Electricity to be sold to Thailand
Sardar Sarovar Project Narmada River, Madhya Pradesh, India             ?      ? Irrigation for Gujarat, electricity, extremely controversial
M-1 Motorway Karachi-Peshawar, Pak.        1,300      ? Islamabad-Lahore (1997), -Peshawar (begun 1998)
Railways (Heavy) Length (km)  
South Xinjiang Kashi-Korla, China           975 2000 Completes 1,470-km Turpan-Kashi Railway
Guangdong-Hainan mainland China-Hainan           543 2001 First rail link to Hainan
Trans-Isthmus Colón-Panama City, Pan.             89 2000 Complete overhaul for container traffic
Railways (High Speed) Length (km)  
Kyongbu Seoul-Pusan, S.Kor.           431 2003 Connects two largest cities
Taiwan High Speed Taipei-Kao-hsiung, Taiwan           345 2003 Connects two largest cities
Italy High Speed Milan-Bologna, Italy (third line)           180 1998 8 lines (1992-2003)
German High Speed Oebisfelde-Berlin, Ger.           152 1998 First link to Berlin; opened Sept. 27, 1998
Subways/Metros Length (m)  
Oporto Metro Oporto, Port.      70,000 2003 Europe's largest total rail system project
Madrid Metro Madrid, Spain      37,500 1999 39 new stations
Kuala Lumpur Metro Kuala Lumpur-Sepang, Malaysia      29,000 1999 Longest driverless metro system in the world
Manila Metro Manila, Phil.      16,800 2000 Built over extremely congested auto routes
London Metro (Jubilee Extension) London, Eng.      15,980 1999 Twin 12,390-m tunnels
Chongqing Metro: Line 1 Chongqing, China      15,000 1998 Line 2 planned 1996-2000
Paris Métro (Meteor Line) Paris, France        7,500 1998 First new line since 1935; driverless
Tunnels Length (m)  
Lærdal Lærdal-Aurland, Nor.      24,500 2001 World's longest road tunnel
A86 Ring Road around Paris      17,700 2005 Two tunnels; preserves Seine Valley beauty
Bosporus Istanbul, Turkey      13,300 2003 Rail tunnel to ease bridge traffic pressure
Pinglin Highway near Taipei, Taiwan      12,900 1999 Twin 11.8-m tunnels under Sheuhshan Range
North Cape Magerøy Sound, Nor.        6,820 1999 World's longest subsea road tunnel
Maynard Mountain (enlarged) near Whittier, Alaska        4,000 2000 First roadway and new piggyback rail
Øresund Copenhagen, Den.-Malmö, Swed.        3,750 2000 Twin tunnels; world-record immersed tube
Orelle east of Frejus Tunnel, France        3,600 2000  
Central Artery/Tunnel Boston, Mass., U.S.           330 2004 "One of the most complex construction challenges of this century"
Urban Development Area (sq m)  
Potsdamer Platz Berlin, Ger.    620,000 2000 19 buildings
See as table:
      1 m = 3.28 ft; 1 km = 0.62 mi; 1 ha = 2.47 ac

* * *

Table
Notable Civil Engineering Projects (in work or completed, 2004)
Name Location Year of completion Notes
Airports Terminal area (sq m)
Suvarnabhumi ("Golden Land") near Bangkok, Thai. 563,000 2006 To replace Don Muang Airport, Southeast Asia s busiest airport
Barajas International Airport (new Terminal 4) northeast of Madrid, Spain 470,000 2005 New terminal in leading airport for Europe-Latin America flights
Changi International (new Terminal 3) eastern Singapore 430,000 2006 New terminal in Asia s 4th largest airport
Pearson International (new Terminal 1) Toronto, Ont. 340,000 2004 Opened April 6; new terminal at Canada s busiest airport
Baiyun ("White Cloud") Int l (replacement) near Guangzhou (Canton), China 305,000 2004 Opened August 5; main hub airport of south China (excl. Hong Kong)
Ben-Gurion Int l (new Terminal 3) southeast of Tel Aviv, Israel 223,000 2004 Opened Nov. 2; new international terminal at Middle East s busiest airport
Central Japan International artificial island off Nagoya, Japan 220,000 2005 To be Japan s 3rd largest airport
Dallas/Fort Worth Int l (new Terminal D) Irving, Texas 195,000 2005 New international terminal
Heathrow (new Terminal 5) southwest of London, Eng. 70,000 2008 Biggest construction project in the U.K. from 2002
Bridges Length (main span; m)
Hangzhou Bay near Jiaxing, China to near Cixi, China 2,600 2009 To be world s longest (35.6 km) transoceanic bridge/causeway; begun 2003
I-95 (Woodrow Wilson #2) Alexandria, Va. to Md. suburbs of D.C. 1,8291 2006 2 bascule spans forming higher inverted V shape for ships; begun 2000
Nancha (1 bridge of 2-section Runyang) Zhenjiang, China (across the Yangtze) 1,490 2005 To be world s 3rd longest (and China s first major) suspension bridge
Sutong Nantong, China (100 km from Yangtze mouth) 1,088 2008 To be world s longest cable-stayed bridge
Stonecutters Tsing Yi-Sha Tin, Hong Kong, China 1,018 2008 To be world s 2nd longest cable-stayed bridge; see Sutong
Tacoma Narrows (#3) the Narrows of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Wash. 853 2008 Built over collapsed TN #1; longest U.S. suspension bridge since 1964
Rion-Antirion near Patrai, Greece (across Gulf of Corinth) 560 2004 Opened Aug. 8; 2nd longest all-span cable-stayed (2,252 m); see Millau
(New) Cooper River Charleston, S.C. to Mt. Pleasant, S.C. 471 2005 To be longest cable-stayed bridge in North America
Millau Viaduct Tarn Gorge, west of Millau, France 342 2004 Opened Dec. 14; world s highest (270 m) bridge and longest all-span cable-stayed (2,460 m) bridge
Shibanpe Chongqing, China (across the Yangtze) 330 2005 To be world s longest prestressed-concrete box girder bridge
Buildings Height (m)
Burj ("Tower") Dubai Dubai, United Arab Emirates 805 2008 To be world s tallest building
Freedom Tower New York, N.Y.
● "1,776 ft"
● (541 m)
2008 Cornerstone laid July 4; to be tallest building in North America
Taipei 101 (Taipei Financial Center) Taipei, Taiwan 508 2003 Declared world s tallest building April 15, 2004; opened in stages from Nov. 2003
Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai, China 492 2007 Begun 1997, resumed 2003; to be world s 2nd tallest building (in 2007)
Union Square Phase 7 Hong Kong, China 474 2007 Begun 2002; to be world s 3rd tallest (in 2007); 16-building complex
Federation Tower A Moscow, Russia 340 2007 To be tallest building in Europe
Eureka Tower Melbourne, Australia 300 2005 To be Australia s 2nd tallest building and world s 2nd tallest residential
Dams and Hydrologic Projects Crest length (m)
Three Gorges (3rd of 3 phases) west of Yichang, China 1,983 2009 To create world s largest reservoir (620 km long) beginning 2003 + 1/9th of nat l total generated power
Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) Project Narmada River, Madhya Pradesh, India 1,210 2007 Largest dam of controversial 30-dam project; drinking water for Gujarat
Bakun Dam Balui River, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia 740 2007 To be largest dam in Southeast Asia; hydroelectricity to all of Borneo
Caruachi (3rd of 5-dam Lower Caroní Development scheme) Caroní River, northern Bolívar, Venez. 360 2003-06 Hydroelectric generation began Feb. 28, 2003
Belo Monte Xingú River, Pará, Braz. ? 2008 To be 3rd largest dam in the world in terms of electricity output
Tucuruí (upgrade) Tocantins River, eastern Pará, Braz. ? 2005 Generating capacity to be doubled; 1st Brazilian Amazon dam (1984)
Project Moses (flood-protection plan) Venice, Italy — 2010 79 submerged gates in 3 lagoon openings will rise in flood conditions
Highways Length (km)
Golden Quadrilateral superhighway Mumbai to Chennai to Kolkata to Delhi, India 5,846 2005 Upgrade to 4 lanes; to link India s 4 largest metropolitan areas
Trans-Siberian highway (final stage) Khabarovsk to Chita, Russia 2,165 2004 Opened Feb. 26; last link in 10,000-km Moscow-Vladivostok highway
Highway 1 Kabul to Kandahar to Herat, Afg. 1,048 2005 Final, 566-km Kandahar-Herat section to open Sept. 2005
Egnatia Motorway Igoumenitsa to Kipi, Greece 680 2006 First Greek highway at int l standards; 76 tunnels, 1,650 bridges
Croatian Motorway Zagreb to Split, Croatia 380 2005 Mountainous terrain with unstable slopes, caves, and unexploded ordnance
Land Reclamation Area (sq km)
The Palms ("Jumeirah, Jebel Ali" and Deira islands) in Persian Gulf, off Dubai, U.A.E. "c. 20 and 40 sq km" and
c. 80 sq km 2006-09 Date-palm-tree-shaped islands ("two 17 fronds + trunk" and one 41 fronds + trunk); ultraexclusive
Railways (Heavy) Length (km)
Trans-Kazakhstan Dostyq (Druzhba), Kazakh. to Gorgan, Iran 3,943 2008 China to Europe link, bypassing Russia + Uzbek.; 3,083 km in Kazakh.
Qinghai-Tibet China: Golmud, Qinghai to Lhasa, Tibet 1,142 2007 World s highest railway (5,072 m at summit); 86% above 4,000 m
Xi an-Nanjing China: Xi an, Shaanxi to Nanjing, Jiangsu 1,129 2007 For economic growth in interior; 954-km Xi an-Hefei section finished 2003
Ferronorte (extension to Rondonópolis) Alto Araguaia to Rondonópolis, Braz. 270 2007 For soybean/cereal exports from Mato Grosso (Braz. interior)
Bothnia Line (Botniabanan) Nyland to Umeå, Swed. 190 2010 Along north Swedish coast; difficult terrain with 25 km of tunnels
Railways (High Speed) Length (km)
Spanish high speed (second line) Madrid, Spain, to France (via Barcelona) 719 2009 To reach Barcelona in 2007?; Madrid-Lleida corridor opened Oct. 11, 2003
Korea Train Express (KTX) Seoul to Pusan, S.Kor. 412 2008 Will connect largest and 2nd largest cities; to Taegu as of April 1, 2004
Taiwan high speed Hsi-chih to Tso-ying, Taiwan 345 2005 Links Taiwan s 2 largest cities (Taipei and Kao-hsiung) along west coast
Eastern France high speed eastern outskirts of Paris to near Metz, Fr. 300 2007 106-km extension to Strasbourg in planning stage
Italian high speed (second line) Rome to Naples, Italy 205 2005 Entire N-S (Turin-Naples) high-speed routes (844 km) completed 2009?
Channel Tunnel Rail Link near Folkestone to central London, Eng. 109 2007 74-km section (Folkestone-north Kent) opened Sept. 16, 2003
Subways/Metros/Light Rails Length (km)
Shanghai Metro Shanghai, China 99.9 2005-06 Length of 4 lines under construction in late 2004
Barcelona Metro (Line 9) airport to northeast Barcelona, Spain 47.0 2008 Connections to other metro lines and future high-speed rail
Guangzhou (Canton) Metro (line 3) Guangzhou, China (north-south line) 36.1 2006 15-line system planned; 83 km in 4 lines under construction in 2004
Shenzhen Metro (phase 1; lines 1 and 4) Shenzhen, China (adjacent to Hong Kong) 21.8 2004 Phase 1 of both lines began operation Dec. 28
Delhi Metro (Line 1) Delhi, India 21.3 2004 Opened March 31; 30.2 km of lines 2 and 3 to open in 2005
Copenhagen Metro (last extension) Copenhagen, Den. 21.0 2007 Connects city centre to airport
Bangkok Blue Line north-south line in central Bangkok, Thai. 20.0 2004 Opened to the public July 3; Thailand s first underground system
Hiawatha Light Rail Downtown Minneapolis to Bloomington, Minn. 19.3 2004 Opened December 4
Las Vegas Monorail Las Vegas, Nev. (east side of L.V. Strip) 6.1 2004 Opened July 14, temp. closure Sept. 8-Dec. 23; 5-km extension by 2007?
Tunnels Length (m)
Apennine Range tunnels (9) Bologna to Florence, Italy (high-speed railway) 73,400 2008 Longest tunnel (Vaglia, 18.6 km); tunnels to cover 93% of railway
Lötschberg #2 Frutigen to Raron, Switz. 34,577 2007 To be world s 3rd longest rail tunnel; France-Italy link
Guadarrama 50 km north-northwest of Madrid, Spain 28,377 2007 To be world s 4th longest rail tunnel; Valladolid high-speed link
Södra Länken ("Southern Link") part of Stockholm, Swed., ring road 16,600 2004 Opened Oct. 24; complex of underground interchanges
Hsüeh-shan ("Snow Mountain") near Taipei, Taiwan 12,900 2005 Breakthrough Sept. 16, 2004; world s 4th longest road tunnel
East and West tunnels of A86 ring road western outskirts of Paris, Fr. 10,000/7,500 2007 Two tunnels under Versailles and nearby protected woodlands
● 1 m=3.28 ft; 1 km=0.62 mi; 1 ha=2.47 ac
1Length of each span
See as table:

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Universalium. 2010.

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