Livni, Tzipi


Livni, Tzipi
▪ 2009

born July 8, 1958, Tel Aviv, Israel

 Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni, who became Kadima (“Forward”) party leader in September 2008, was tapped soon after to form a coalition government following the resignation of party chairman and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. Livni spent much of the next few weeks trying to form a coalition government, but her efforts proved unsuccessful. Instead, she petitioned Israeli Pres. Shimon Peres to call early elections, which were set for Feb. 10, 2009.

      Tziporah Malka Livni was the daughter of Polish-born parents who were both active in Irgun Zvai Leumi, a militant Jewish group that fought for the foundation of Israel and was the precursor of the hawkish Herut and Likud parties. After serving as a lieutenant in the Israel Defense Forces, Livni began a law degree in 1979 at Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan. The following year she was recruited by the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad, and her studies were interrupted in 1983 when she was sent on a mission to Paris. She left the agency shortly thereafter and married accountant Naftali Shpitzer. In 1984 she completed her degree, and during 1984–96 she practiced law, specializing in real-estate and corporate law.

      Livni entered politics following the 1995 assassination of Labour Party Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin by a right-wing Jewish extremist. She believed that Israel's political right had been unfairly discredited by the assassination and was determined to reverse the Oslo process Rabin had led. When she failed to win a Knesset (parliament) seat in the 1996 election, newly elected Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of the Likud party appointed her head of the Government Companies Authority, where she oversaw a large privatization program.

      In 1999 Livni narrowly won a seat in the Knesset in an election swept by the Israel Labour Party. Her rapid political ascent began two years later when Likud's Ariel Sharon replaced Labour's Ehud Barak as prime minister, and after holding a number of junior portfolios and cultivating a highly principled image, she became minister of justice in early 2005. During this time her views on the Arab-Israeli conflict underwent a dramatic change; whereas she had previously supported an Israeli state that encompassed all of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, she became a supporter of the policy of land for peace, with the belief that a Palestinian state was necessary to maintain Israel as a democratic, Jewish-majority state. To that end, as a member of Sharon's inner circle, she helped plan Israel's unilateral withdrawal from the Gaza Strip in 2005.

      In November 2005 she left Likud, with Sharon and other party moderates, to found Kadima. When Sharon was incapacitated by a stroke in January 2006, Olmert took over as party leader, winning a general election in March and appointing Livni minister of foreign affairs. Livni later called on Olmert to resign in the wake of Israel's 34-day war against the Shiʿite militia Hezbollah in Lebanon in summer 2006, and the two became bitter rivals. Amid allegations of corruption, Olmert announced in July 2008 that he would step down as prime minister, and Livni narrowly won a September 2008 party election to replace him.

Leslie D. Susser

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▪ Israeli politician
in full  Tziporah Malka Livni 
born July 8, 1958, Tel Aviv
 
 Israeli politician who served as minister of foreign affairs from 2006. She was elected leader of Kadima, the governing party, in September 2008.

      Livni's Polish-born parents Eitan (Benozovich) Livni and Sarah (née Rosenberg) were both active in Irgun Zvai Leumi, a militant Jewish group that fought for the foundation of Israel and was the precursor of the hawkish Herut and Likud parties. After serving as a lieutenant in the Israel Defense Forces, in 1979 she began a law degree at Bar-Ilan University. The following year she was recruited by the Israeli intelligence organization Mossad, and her studies were interrupted in 1983 when she was sent on a mission in Paris. She left the agency shortly thereafter and married accountant Naftali Shpitzer, with whom she later had two sons. In 1984 she completed her degree, and from 1984 to 1996 she practiced law, specializing in real estate and corporate law.

      Livni entered politics following the 1995 assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (Rabin, Yitzhak) by a right-wing Jewish extremist. She believed that Israel's political right had been unfairly discredited by the assassination and was determined to reverse the Oslo process Rabin had led (see Israel: The Oslo Accords (Israel)). When she failed to win a Knesset seat in the 1996 election, newly elected Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (Netanyahu, Benjamin) of the Likud party appointed her head of the Government Companies Authority, where she oversaw a large privatization program.

      In 1999 Livni narrowly won a seat in the Knesset in an election swept by the Israel Labour Party. Her rapid political ascent began two years later when Likud's Ariel Sharon (Sharon, Ariel) replaced Ehud Barak (Barak, Ehud) as prime minister, and, after holding a number of junior portfolios and cultivating a highly principled image, she became minister of justice in early 2005. During this time her views on the Arab-Israeli conflict underwent a dramatic change: whereas she had previously supported an Israeli state that encompassed all of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, she became a supporter of the policy of land for peace, with the belief that a Palestinian state was necessary to maintain Israel as a democratic, Jewish-majority state. To that end, as a member of Sharon's inner circle, she helped plan Israel's unilateral withdrawal from the Gaza Strip in the summer of 2005.

 In November 2005 Livni left Likud with Sharon and other party moderates to found Kadima (“Forward”). When Sharon was incapacitated by a stroke in January 2006, Ehud Olmert (Olmert, Ehud), then vice prime minister, took over as party leader and acting prime minister. Upon being confirmed as prime minister following a general election in March, he appointed Livni minister of foreign affairs. Livni later called on Olmert to resign in the wake of Israel's 34-day war against the Shīʿite militia Hezbollah in Lebanon in summer 2006, and the two became bitter rivals. Beleaguered by a string of corruption scandals, Olmert announced in July 2008 that he would step down as prime minister, and Livni narrowly won a September 2008 party election to replace him. With Livni unable to form a coalition government in the weeks that followed, however, elections were set for February 2009.

Leslie D. Susser Ed.
 

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Universalium. 2010.

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