- Bondi, Sir Hermann
▪ 2006Austrian-born British mathematician and cosmologist (b. Nov. 1, 1919, Vienna, Austria—d. Sept. 10, 2005, Cambridge, Eng.), was best known for his collaboration with astronomer Thomas Gold and astrophysicist Fred Hoyle in formulating (1948) the steady-state theory of the universe, which postulates that the universe is infinite and, though expanding, remains essentially unchanged over time through the continuous creation of new matter. The steady-state theory contributed to the development of cosmology, but it was supplanted by the big-bang theory, which (in agreement with subsequent astronomical observations) held that the universe had a specific beginning. Bondi's later study of the general theory of relativity and black holes led to a useful description of how gases would behave as they were drawn into a black hole, an effect known as Bondi accretion. After graduating (M.A., 1940) in mathematics from Trinity College, Cambridge, Bondi was briefly interned (1940–41) as an “enemy alien.” He met Gold at an internment camp in Canada, but the two men were returned to England, where they did wartime research under Hoyle. Bondi taught mathematics at Cambridge (1945–54) and at King's College, London (1954–85), and was a master of Churchill College, Cambridge (1983–90). He also led a successful career in public service, first as director general of the European Space Research Organization (1967–71) and later as a scientific adviser to the British government (1971–80). Bondi was knighted in 1973.
* * *▪ British scientistborn November 1, 1919, Vienna, Austriadied September 10, 2005, Cambridge, EnglandBritish mathematician and cosmologist who, with Fred Hoyle (Hoyle, Sir Fred) and Thomas Gold (Gold, Thomas), formulated the steady-state theory of the universe.Bondi received an M.A. from Trinity College, Cambridge. During World War II he worked in the British Admiralty (1942–45). He then taught mathematics at Cambridge (1945–54) and at King's College in London (1954–85; emeritus 1985); he served as master of Churchill College, Cambridge, from 1983 to 1990. Bondi combined his academic career with active involvement in public service. He was director general of the European Space Research Organization (1967–71), chief scientific adviser to the British ministry of defense (1971–77), chief scientist of the department of energy (1977–80), and chairman of the Natural Environment Research Council (1980–84).In 1948 Bondi, Hoyle, and Gold advanced their cosmological theory of a steady-state universe (steady-state theory), which postulates that the universe is the same everywhere and for all time. This means that as the universe expands, new matter would have to be created to balance this expansion. The theory of an eternal, steady-state universe, with no specific origin, has fallen into disrepute since the discovery (1961) of cosmic background radiation (i.e., a faint glow of radio radiation emanating from all directions in space), which strongly suggests that the universe began at some definable moment in the past with a violent explosion of an extremely dense and intensely hot mass of material.Works by Bondi include Cosmology (1952; reissued 1960), The Universe at Large (1960), Relativity and Commonsense (1964), and Assumption and Myth in Physical Theory (1967). He was made a fellow of the Royal Society in 1959 and was knighted in 1973. His autobiography, Science, Churchill, and Me, was published in 1990.
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BONDI, SIR HERMANN — (1919– ), British mathematician and cosmologist, born in Vienna, where he lived and studied under the shadow of fascism. He moved to England in 1937 and studied in Cambridge where he held academic posts (1945–1954). His studies were disrupted by… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Bondi , Sir Hermann — (1919–) British–Austrian mathematician and cosmologist. See Hoyle, Sir Fred … Scientists
Hermann Bondi — Sir Hermann Bondi (nacido el 1 de noviembre de 1919 10 de septiembre de 2005). Físico y matemático británico de origen austriaco y un importante cosmólogo. Junto con Fred Hoyle y Thomas Gold, elaboró la Estado Estacionario, alternativa a la… … Wikipedia Español
Hermann Bondi — Sir Hermann Bondi KCB (* 1. November 1919 in Wien; † 10. September 2005 in Cambridge) war ein britischer Mathematiker und Kosmologe österreichischer Abstammung. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Wirken 2 Auszeichnungen und Ehrenämter … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bondi k-calculus — is a method of teaching special relativity originated by Professor Sir Hermann Bondi, and now common in university and college level physics classes. The usefulness of the k calculus is its simplicity. It has been successfully used to teach… … Wikipedia
Hermann Bondi — Sir Hermann Bondi (nacido el 1 de noviembre de 1919 10 de septiembre de 2005). Físico y matemático británico de origen austriaco y un importante cosmólogo. Junto con Fred Hoyle y Thomas Gold, elaboró la Estado Estacionario, alternativa a la… … Enciclopedia Universal
Hermann Bondi — Infobox Scientist name = Sir Hermann Bondi box width = image size = 150px caption = Hermann Bondi birth date = birth date|1919|11|01 birth place = Austria death date = death date and age|2005|09|10|1919|11|01 death place = Cambridge,… … Wikipedia
Sir Fred Hoyle — Fred Hoyle Fred Hoyle Sir Fred Hoyle (24 juin 1915 20 août 2001) était un cosmologiste britannique. Il était le principal détracteur de la théorie du Big Bang. Pour la désigner, il inventa le terme Big Bang … Wikipédia en Français
Hoyle, Sir Fred — born June 24, 1915, Bingley, Yorkshire, Eng. died Aug. 20, 2001, Bournemouth, Dorset British mathematician and astronomer. He was educated at the University of Cambridge, where he became a lecturer in 1945. Within the framework of Albert Einstein … Universalium
Hoyle , Sir Fred — (1915–) British astronomer The son of a textile merchant from Bingley in Yorkshire, England, Hoyle was educated at Cambridge. After graduating in 1936 he remained at Cambridge as a graduate student before being elected to a fellowship at St. John … Scientists