Science of explanation and interpretation of the Qurān.It arose after the death of Muhammad to deal with ambiguity, variant readings, defective texts, and apparent contradictions in the scripture. Starting from mere personal speculation, tafsīr developed into a system of systematic exegesis of the Qurʾān's text, proceeding verse by verse and sometimes word by word. Early efforts relied on the Hadīth, later giving rise to a more dogmatic type of tafsīr. The most comprehensive work was compiled by the scholar al-Tabarī. Some Muslim modernists have employed tafsīr as a vehicle for reformist ideas.
* * *▪ IslamArabic“explanation”the science of explanation of the Qurʾān, the sacred scripture of Islam, or of Qurʾānic commentary. So long as Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, was alive, no other authority for interpretations of the Qurʾānic revelations was recognized by Muslims. Upon his death, however, commentaries were needed because the text, when it achieved written form, lacked historical sequence in the arrangement of materials, suffered from ambiguity of both text and meaning, showed a variety of differing readings, was recorded in a defective script, and even contained apparent contradictions. Many Muslims in the early period sought to explain the Qurʾān on the basis of pure personal speculation, known as tafsīr bir-raʾy, and such interpretation, though generally disapproved, has persisted down to the present time. Others explained or embellished Qurʾānic passages using stories drawn from Christian—and especially from Jewish—sources (Isrāʾīliyyāt). To counter the arbitrariness of such interpretation, in the fourth Islamic century (10th century AD) there emerged the religious science called ʿilm al-tafsīr, a systematic exegesis of the Qurʾānic text, which proceeds verse by verse, and sometimes word by word. Over time this science developed several methods and forms of its own.The Hungarian scholar Ignáz Goldziher traced the development of tafsīr through several stages. In the first, or primitive, stage, Muslims were concerned principally to establish the proper text of the Qurʾān. The second stage, known as traditional tafsīr, featured explanations of Qurʾānic passages based upon what the Prophet himself or his companions said these passages to mean. It relied, therefore, upon the traditions ( Ḥadīth) or reports of the sayings of Muhammad and his immediate associates. As Muslims sought to establish their identity as a religious community and to define their doctrinal stance, there arose a dogmatic type of tafsīr. The Qurʾān was interpreted by various sectarian groups to establish their own peculiar doctrinal positions; notable among them were the Muʿtazilah, so-called rationalists, who insisted that interpretation (taʾwīl) of the Qurʾān must conform with reason. Sufis (Ṣūfism) (Muslim mystics) and Shīʿites with esoteric inclinations also practiced taʾwīl, departing sharply from a purely external analysis. (See Bāṭinīyah.) A British scholar, John Wansbrough, classified tafsīr literature according to its form and function. He distinguished five types, which he held to have appeared in roughly the following chronological order: attempts to supply a narrative context for passages, efforts to explain the implications for conduct of various passages, concern with details of the text, concern with matters of rhetoric, and allegorical interpretation.The monumental commentary compiled by the historian aṭ-Ṭabarī (Ṭabarī, aṭ-) (838/839–923) assembled all the traditional scholarship that had been produced until his time. It remains the most basic of all tafsīrs. Subsequent commentaries of note include those by az-Zamakhsharī (Zamakhsharī, Abu al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿUmar al-) (1075–1143), ar-Rāzī (Fakhr ad-Dīn ar-Rāzī) (1149–1209), al-Bayḍāwī (d. 1280), and as-Suyūṭī (Suyūṭī, al-) (1445–1505). Commentaries continue to be compiled at the present time; Muslim modernists, for example, have used them as a vehicle for their reformist ideas.
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Tafsir — Tafsîr (arabe : تَفْسِير tafsīr, « interprétation ») est le terme arabe pour désigner une exégèse du Coran. Le tafsîr du Coran, basé sur les hadith, ne relève que du sens apparent (zahîr) du texte sacré, sans s attacher aux… … Wikipédia en Français
Tafsir — arabisch تفسير „Erläuterung, Deutung, Interpretation“, die Exegese des Korans, gehört zu den wichtigsten islamischen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen. Die klassischen Kommentare und Erläuterungen zum Text des Koran folgen dem Aufbau des Korans nach… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tafsīr — oder Tafsir steht für: Tafsīr (Koranexegese) Tafsīr al Dschalālain Tafsir (Bibelübersetzung) Tafsir ist zudem der Vorname folgender Personen: Tafsir Malick Ndiaye … Deutsch Wikipedia
TAFSIR — TAFS 壟R Mot arabe qui signifie explication, commentaire (du verbe fassara , «expliquer») et qui a pour synonyme shar ム , tafs 稜r désigne une forme de commentaires d’ouvrages très divers en matière de science et de philosophie. Mais la… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Tafsir — Part of a series on the Quran … Wikipedia
Tafsir — El Tafsir es la ciencia de explicación e interpretación del Corán. Se origina después de la muerte de Mahoma para afrontar la ambigüedad, variantes de textos, pasajes defectuosos y aparentes contradicciones en la escritura sagrada. Comenzando por … Wikipedia Español
tafsir — Ciencia que permite explicar e interpretar el Corán. Surgió después de la muerte de Mahoma para resolver los problemas de ambigüedad, las lecturas discrepantes, los textos imperfectos y las aparentes contradicciones en la escritura. El tafsir,… … Enciclopedia Universal
tafsir — noun grammatical, historical, allegorical or traditional interpretations of the Quran … Wiktionary
Tafsir — Taf|sir: ↑Tefsir … Universal-Lexikon
Tafsir — Taf|sir vgl. ↑Tefsir … Das große Fremdwörterbuch