other minds, problem of


other minds, problem of
In epistemology, the problem of explaining how it is possible for one person to know anything about the quality of another person's inner experience, or even that other people have inner experiences at all.

According to a standard example, because each person's pain sensation is private, one cannot really know that what another person describes as pain is really qualitatively the same as what one describes as pain oneself. Though the physical manifestations the other person exhibits can be perceived, it seems that only the other person can know the contents of his mind. The traditional justification for belief in other minds, the argument from analogy, was given its classic formulation by John Stuart Mill: because my body and outward behaviour are observably similar to the bodies and behaviour of others, I am justified by analogy in believing that others have feelings like my own and are not simply automatons. In the mid-20th century the argument from analogy was severely criticized by followers of the later Ludwig Wittgenstein. An approach to the problem of other minds from the perspective of existentialism is contained in Being and Nothingness (1943), by Jean-Paul Sartre.

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      in philosophy, the problem of justifying the commonsensical belief that others besides oneself possess minds and are capable of thinking or feeling somewhat as one does oneself. The problem has been discussed within both the analytic (analytic philosophy) (Anglo-American) and the continental philosophical traditions, and since the 20th century it has provided a matter for dispute in epistemology, logic, and philosophy of mind (mind, philosophy of).

      The traditional philosophical justification for belief in other minds is the argument from analogy, which, as cogently stated by John Stuart Mill (Mill, John Stuart), a 19th-century empiricist, argues that, because one's body and outward behaviour are observably similar to the bodies and behaviour of others, one is justified by analogy in believing that others have feelings like one's own and not simply the bodies and behaviour of automatons.

      This argument has been repeatedly attacked since the 1940s, although some philosophers continue to defend certain forms of it. Norman Malcolm, an American disciple of Ludwig Wittgenstein (Wittgenstein, Ludwig), asserted that the argument is either superfluous or its conclusion unintelligible to the person who would make it, because, in order to know what the conclusion “that human figure has thoughts and feelings” means, one would have to know what criteria are involved in correctly or incorrectly stating that someone has thoughts or feelings—and knowledge of these criteria would render the argument from analogy unnecessary. Defenders of the argument have maintained, however, that, since both the person making the argument and others describe inner feelings in similar ways and seemingly understand each other, reference to a common language justifies the argument from analogy better than does observation of similarities of bodies and outward behaviour.

      Another objection to the argument is that it seems to assume that one in fact knows what it is to have feelings simply by introspection. This assumption has been objected to by followers of Wittgenstein (Wittgenstein, Ludwig), who think that it leads to the possibility of a “private language” to describe one's own sensations, a possibility that Wittgenstein rejected on various grounds. Such philosophers maintain that one simply does not know what one's own feelings are in a way appropriate to the argument until one has learned from experience with others how to describe such feelings in appropriate language. Some philosophers have thought, however, that this situation leads to the conclusion that one can be wrong when one says, “My tooth aches” in the same way that one can be mistaken when one says, “John's tooth aches.” This thesis is unacceptable to many, who hold that sincere first-person present-tense statements about sensations cannot be false—i.e., they are “incorrigible.”

      Discussion of such problems tends to lead quickly into difficulties of providing an adequate analysis of statements about one's own sensations. The approach to the problem of other minds within Existentialism is exemplified in a long chapter of L'Être et le néant (1943; Being and Nothingness), by Jean-Paul Sartre (Sartre, Jean-Paul).

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Universalium. 2010.

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