- migrant labour
Semiskilled or unskilled workers who move from one region to another, offering their services on a temporary, usually seasonal, basis.In North America, migrant labour is generally employed in agriculture and moves seasonally from south to north following the harvest. In Europe and the Middle East, migrant labour usually involves urban rather than agricultural employment and calls for longer periods of residence. The migrant labour market is often disorganized and exploitative. Many workers are supervised by middlemen such as labour contractors and crew leaders, who recruit and transport them and dispense their pay. Labourers commonly endure long hours, low wages, poor working conditions, and substandard housing. In some countries, child labour is widespread among migrant labourers, and even in the U.S. those children who do not work often do not go to school, since schools are usually open only to local residents. Workers willing to accept employment on these terms are usually driven by even worse conditions in their home countries. Labour organizing is made difficult by mobility and by low rates of literacy and political participation, though some migrant labourers in the U.S. have been unionized. See also Cesar Chavez.
* * *Introductioncasual and unskilled workers who move about systematically from one region to another offering their services on a temporary, usually seasonal, basis. Migrant labour in various forms is found in South Africa, the Middle East, western Europe, North America, and India.General causes and work conditionsIn Europe and the Middle East, migrant labour usually has been recruited for urban rather than agricultural employment and involves longer periods of residence. In North America, migrant labour tends to be hired for farmwork, primarily at harvest time. The demand for agricultural (agriculture, origins of) migrant labour stems from the seasonal nature of harvesting. In the Northern Hemisphere, migrant labour moves seasonally from south to north following the harvest, while this pattern is reversed in the Southern Hemisphere. Most of these agricultural workers move in established patterns within these general directions, and their work typically involves tasks that are manual, repetitive, and easily learned.Among the economic conditions that heighten the demand for migrant workers are rapid increases in agricultural production within a given region and a significant loss in the number of farm labourers—a condition often caused by higher wages outside the agricultural sector. While the factors that create the demand for migrant labour may vary, those behind the supply of migrant labour tend to be constant: in most cases, migrant labourers come to their work because of unfavourable economic and social conditions in their home regions.The short-lived relationship between migrant worker and employer creates a disorderly labour market. Most migrant labourers have no reemployment rights, are usually not organized (organized labour) in unions, and have limited access to the job market. Middlemen, job brokers, labour contractors (contract labour), and crew leaders add some order to the system. For example, labour contractors will recruit workers, transport and supervise them, and dispense their pay. Contractors also negotiate wages and working conditions with the employers. On the other hand, the wages, working conditions, and standards of living for migrant workers tend to be lower than those of other labourers, and migrants must often work long hours under exacting requirements. In some countries, child labour is widespread among migrant labourers, and even in the United States those children who do not work might not attend school, because in many localities schools are open only to legal residents. There can also be inadequate housing for migrant workers, and their literacy levels, social cohesion, and rates of political participation are low.Whether native or foreign-born, migrants are fundamentally alien to the community in which they work. As a result, migrant workers can have difficulty accessing local health and social services and can be deprived of rights either because of their illegal status or because they lack easy recourse to the courts. The nomadic nature of migrant workers makes the regulation of their working and living conditions difficult and may negate union and government labour standards (labour law) that apply to regular work settings.Employment patterns in North AmericaIn the United States, workers may winter in Florida to pick citrus crops and then, joined by others from Texas and Puerto Rico, move northward into New England as far as Maine, harvesting tomatoes, potatoes, apples, and other farm produce. Another large stream of workers from Texas sets out in the spring for the north-central, mountain, and Pacific states, harvesting fruits, vegetables, sugar beets, and cotton. A third stream of migrants harvests vegetables from southern California northward through the Pacific Coast states.Increased mechanization of farming has reduced the demand for migrant labour in the United States. Some migrant workers are American citizens of Mexican descent, while many others are illegal immigrants from south of the border. Most are males younger than age 30 and have less than eight years of schooling. In common with those of other countries, many migrant workers in the United States suffer from underemployment, inadequate housing, and exclusion from normal community life. They usually work for low wages and have average annual incomes that amount to only a fraction of those of most American workers. The lot of migrant workers in the United States has nevertheless improved since the 1960s, when labour unions and activists such as Cesar Chavez (Chavez, Cesar) began to organize the migrants. In addition, some states and localities have established special committees to implement and expand social legislation that benefits migrant labourers.Migrant labour around the worldPatterns of migrant labour on other continents have differed substantially from those in North America, with urban (rather than agricultural) employment accounting for a much greater share of such work. Migrant labour was used on a massive scale in South Africa, where black workers were drawn from rural areas to work in cities in which they were denied the rights of residency. This racially determined migrancy was a cornerstone of the apartheid system in the second half of the 20th century, which forced millions of black workers to shuttle between their impoverished “homelands” and the cities, where they enjoyed only the minimal rights common to most migrant workers. Apartheid was ended in South Africa with the repeal of social legislation in 1990–91 and the ratification of a new constitution in 1999.More benign forms of migrancy flourished in Europe and the Middle East in the second half of the 20th century. Rapid industrial growth in the former West Germany after World War II, for instance, produced a severe labour shortage, attracting several million workers from Turkey, Greece, Italy, and Yugoslavia. The same phenomenon drew many workers to France from North Africa, Spain, and Italy, while Britain (United Kingdom) pulled workers from its former colonies in South Asia, Africa, and the West Indies. After western Europe's economic growth tapered off in the 1970s, the presence of so many foreign workers became a source of social tension in some of their host countries. An even more dramatic example of migratory employment has occurred in the oil-rich countries of the Persian Gulf, where millions of workers from Egypt, Yemen, Jordan, Pakistan, and other Muslim countries migrate to work in the rapidly expanding economies of Saudia Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Libya, Iraq, and Kuwait.Migrant workers in India are involved mainly in the harvesting of tea, cotton, and rice. In Australia and the southernmost nations of Latin America (Latin America, history of), migrants work on ranches more often than on farms, performing such tasks as wool shearing and meat processing.
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