jitō


jitō
In feudal Japan, a land steward appointed by the central military government to each of the estates (shōen) into which the countryside was divided.

The jitō collected taxes and maintained the peace; he was also entitled to a portion of the taxes collected. The position, created by Minamoto Yoritomo in 1184, came to be hereditary. As time went by, the jitō came to have closer ties with local leaders than with the central government, which contributed to the weakening of the Kamakura shogunate (see Kamakura period).

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▪ Japanese history
      in feudal Japan, land steward appointed by the central military government, or shogunate, whose duties involved levying taxes and maintaining peace within the manor. First appointed at the beginning of the 12th century, the jitō enforced the edicts of the shogunate and ensured that taxes were correctly apportioned and collected. In return for his services, the jitō's position was made hereditary, and he received a share of the produce of the estate. He also served as the local judge and was entitled to levy a special “commissariat-rice” (hyōrō-mai) tax for his own use.

      In any emergency the jitō were expected to provide military service to the shogun, or hereditary military dictator of Japan. It was from the jitō that the military governors of a province were appointed. By the 14th century the power of these military governors, or shugo, had increased tremendously, while the lower levels of the jitō merged with the regular landowning class.

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Universalium. 2010.

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