human sacrifice


human sacrifice
Offering of the life of a human being to a god.

In some ancient cultures, the killing of a human being, or the substitution of an animal for a person, was an attempt to commune with the god and to participate in the divine life. It also sometimes served as an attempt to placate the god and expiate the sins of the people. It was especially common among agricultural people (e.g., in the ancient Near East), who sought to guarantee the fertility of the soil. The Aztecs sacrificed thousands of victims (often slaves or prisoners of war) annually to the sun, and the Incas made human sacrifices on the accession of a ruler. In ancient Egypt and elsewhere in Africa, human sacrifice was connected with ancestor worship, and slaves and servants were killed or buried alive along with dead kings in order to provide service in the afterlife. A similar tradition existed in China. The Celts and Germanic peoples are among the European peoples who practiced human sacrifice.

* * *

      the offering of the life of a human being to a deity. The occurrence of human sacrifice can usually be related to the recognition of human blood as the sacred life force. Bloodless forms of killing, however, such as strangulation and drowning, have been used in some cultures. The killing of a human being, or the substitution of an animal for a person, has often been part of an attempt to commune with a god and to participate in divine life. Human life, as the most valuable material for sacrifice, has also been offered in an attempt at expiation.

      There are two primary types of human sacrifice: the offering of a human being to a god and the entombment or slaughter of servants or slaves intended to accompany the deceased into the afterlife. The latter practice was more common. In various places in Africa (African religions), where human sacrifice was connected with ancestor worship, some of the slaves of the deceased were buried alive with him, or they were killed and laid beneath him in his grave. The Dahomey instituted especially elaborate sacrifices at yearly ceremonies related to the cult of deceased kings (sacred kingship). Excavations in Egypt (Egyptian religion) and elsewhere in the ancient Middle East have revealed that numerous servants were at times interred with the funerary equipment of a member of the royal family in order to provide that person with a retinue in the next life. The Chinese practice of burying the emperor's retinue with him continued intermittently until the 17th century.

 The sacrificial offering of humans to a god has been well attested only in a few cultures. In what is now Mexico the belief that the sun needed human nourishment led to the sacrifice of thousands of victims annually in the Aztec and Nahua calendrical maize (corn) ritual. The Inca confined wholesale sacrifices to the occasion of the accession of a ruler. The burning of children seems to have occurred in Assyrian (Assyria) and Canaanite (Syrian and Palestinian religion) religions and at various times among the Israelites. Among the African Asante, the victims sacrificed as first-fruit offerings (agriculture, origins of) during the Festival of New Yams were usually criminals, though slaves also were killed.

      Accusations of human sacrifice in ancient and modern times have been far more widespread than the ritual practice ever was. The ancient Greeks told many myths that involved human sacrifice, which has led some researchers to posit that rites among the Greeks and Romans which involved the killing of animals may have originally involved human victims; at the end of the 20th century, however, archaeological evidence did not support this claim. Some early Christians were falsely accused of cannibalism, consuming sacrificial victims at nocturnal feasts, a misunderstanding probably due to the secrecy surrounding the Eucharistic rite and the use of the words body and blood. From the Middle Ages until quite recently, Jews were often maliciously accused of having sacrificed Christian children at Passover, an accusation which has been termed the blood libel.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Human sacrifice — is the act of homicide (the killing of one or several human beings) in the context of a religious ritual (ritual killing). Its typology closely parallels the various practices of ritual slaughter of animals (animal sacrifice) and of religious… …   Wikipedia

  • HUMAN SACRIFICE —    although some ANTHROPOLOGISTS have attempted to deny its REALITY there seems no doubt that human sacrifice has played an important role in many religious systems and continues to this day to exercise remarkable appeal throughout both Africa… …   Concise dictionary of Religion

  • human sacrifice —    the dismissal of employees    Punning on ancient rites to propitiate the gods:     Sometimes human sacrifice is appropriate, but we have not quite reached that point yet. (Daily Telegraph, 20 November 1998 shares in a company had hit a… …   How not to say what you mean: A dictionary of euphemisms

  • human sacrifice — human being sacrificed in a religious ritual …   English contemporary dictionary

  • human sacrifice — noun the killing of one or more human beings as part of religious ritual …   Wiktionary

  • Human sacrifice in Aztec culture — Human sacrifice was an aspect of historical Aztec culture/religion, although the extent of the practice is debated by scholars. The Spaniards who first met the Aztecs explicitly stated in their writings that human sacrifice was widely practiced… …   Wikipedia

  • Human Sacrifice (album) — Infobox Album Name = Human Sacrifice Type = album Artist = Vengeance Rising Released = 1988 Recorded = 1988 California, United States Genre = Thrash metal Death metal Length = 36:29 Label = Intense Records Producer = Reviews = *Cross Rhythms… …   Wikipedia

  • Celts and human sacrifice — The Celts practised human sacrifice [ The Religion of the Ancient Celts , J. A. MacCulloch, ch xvi, 1911, retrieved 24 May 2007. [http://www.sacred texts.com/neu/celt/rac/rac19.htm#fn 849] ] on a limited scale as part of their religious rituals.… …   Wikipedia

  • Sacrifice — (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred , from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacr , sacred + facere , to make ) is commonly known as the practice of offering food, objects (typically valuables), or the lives of animals or people …   Wikipedia

  • Sacrifice — • This term is identical with the English offering (Latin offerre) and the German Opfer Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Sacrifice     Sacrifice      …   Catholic encyclopedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.