Member of a group of officials who served in the government of Porfirio Díaz (1877–80, 1884–1911) in Mexico.

Influenced by positivism and rejecting metaphysics, theology, and idealism as inadequate to solve Mexico's problems, they advocated applying what they considered to be the scientific methods of the social sciences to the problems of finance, education, and industrialization. They had little influence on Díaz, but the movement took root in other parts of Latin America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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▪ Mexican history

      member of a group of officials, serving from the early 1890s in Porfirio Díaz's (Díaz, Porfirio) regime (1876–1911) in Mexico, who were influenced by Positivism, the philosophy of the Frenchman Auguste Comte. Rejecting metaphysics, theology, and idealism as means of solving national problems, the científicos advocated what they considered to be the practical application of scientific methods, specifically those of the social sciences, to problems of finance, industrialization, and education.

      The founders of the group were Rosendo Pineda and Manuel Romero Rubio. In 1895 José Yves Limantour, the son of a French immigrant and finance minister since 1893, became leader of the circle. He pressed government officials to concentrate on efficiency and did much himself to improve the financial footing of the country. The learned Justo Sierra became minister of education and continued the educational reforms according to Positivist principles initiated in the 1870s by Gabino Barreda, a student of Comte and member of Benito Juárez's government. In 1910 Sierra reopened the National University for the first time in almost a century of national independence. The científicos furnished Díaz's dictatorship, which they upheld as a bulwark against anarchy, with a prestigious facade, as the army and the rurales (federal police) provided it with its foundation. Díaz, however, had little rapport with these intellectuals. Because of their influence, wealth, and favouritism toward foreign capitalists, the científicos were objects of popular disfavour, while Díaz himself tried to cultivate the confidence of the uneducated masses. These científicos were rejected and eclipsed when the Díaz regime fell in the Revolution of 1911.

      During the ascendancy of Plutarco Elías Calles (Calles, Plutarco Elías), both as president and former president (1924–34), another group, also called científicos, came to power; they advocated the use of modern business methods to benefit both themselves and the nation, while stressing self-enrichment.

      The Positivist movement also took root in other Latin American countries, influencing government and education in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Additional Reading
Charles A. Hale, The Transformation of Liberalism in Late Nineteenth-Century Mexico (1989), provides a useful context.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • científico — científico, ca (Del lat. scientifĭcus). 1. adj. Perteneciente o relativo a la ciencia. 2. Que se dedica a una o más ciencias. U. t. c. s.) 3. Que tiene que ver con las exigencias de precisión y objetividad propias de la metodología de las… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • científico — adj. 1. Relativo à ciência ou às ciências. 2. Que mostra ciência.   ‣ Etimologia: latim medieval scientificus, a, um …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • Científico — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español

  • Científico — (Del bajo lat. scientificus < scientia, ciencia.) ► adjetivo 1 Que tiene relación con la ciencia o que trata una o varias ciencias: ■ método científico; comunidad científica. ► sustantivo 2 Persona que se dedica a la investigación científica:… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • científico — {{#}}{{LM C08658}}{{〓}} {{SynC08877}} {{[}}científico{{]}}, {{[}}científica{{]}} ‹cien·tí·fi·co, ca› {{《}}▍ adj.{{》}} {{<}}1{{>}} De la ciencia o relacionado con ella: • un estudio científico.{{○}} {{《}}▍ adj./s.{{》}} {{<}}2{{>}} Que se dedica al …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

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  • Científico — The Científicos (Spanish: scientists or those scientifically oriented ) were a circle of technocratic advisors to President of Mexico Porfirio Díaz. Steeped in the positivist scientific politics , they functioned as part of his program of… …   Wikipedia

  • Científico — Científicos ist die Bezeichnung für die Anhänger des französischen Positivismus während des sogenannten Porfiriats in Mexiko. Es handelte sich dabei um eine Gruppe von Intellektuellen, die die Entwicklungsdiktatur von Porfirio Díaz stützte, weil… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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