Illegal traffic in liquor in the U.S. The term was probably first used to describe the practice of concealing flasks of illicit liquor in boot tops when going to trade with Indians.It became widely used in the 1920s when the 18th Amendment to the Constitution and the Volstead Act of 1919 effected the prohibition of liquor manufacturing and sales. Early bootleggers smuggled foreign-made liquor into the U.S. from Canada and Mexico and from ships anchored in international waters. Later sources included medicinal whiskey, denatured alcohol, and the manufacture of corn liquor. Bootlegging led to the rise of organized-crime syndicates that controlled operations from the manufacture of liquor to its distribution in restaurants and speakeasies. In 1933 Prohibition was repealed by the 21st Amendment. Some counties and municipalities continue to ban liquor, and bootlegging is still practiced.
* * *▪ American historyin U.S. history, illegal traffic in liquor in violation of legislative restrictions on its manufacture, sale, or transportation. The word apparently came into general use in the Midwest in the 1880s to denote the practice of concealing flasks of illicit liquor in boot tops when going to trade with Indians. The term became part of the American vocabulary when the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution effected the national prohibition of alcohol from 1920 until its repeal in 1933.Prohibition ended the legal sale of liquor and thereby created demand for an illicit supply. The earliest bootleggers began smuggling foreign-made commercial liquor into the United States from across the Canadian and Mexican borders and along the seacoasts from ships under foreign registry. Their favourite sources of supply were the Bahamas, Cuba, and the French islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, off the southern coast of Newfoundland. A favourite rendezvous of the rum-running ships was a point opposite Atlantic City, N.J., just outside the three-mile limit beyond which the U.S. government lacked jurisdiction. The bootleggers anchored in this area and discharged their loads into high-powered craft that were built to outrace U.S. Coast Guard cutters.This type of smuggling became more risky and expensive when the U.S. Coast Guard began halting and searching ships at greater distances from the coast and using fast motor launches of its own. Bootleggers had other major sources of supply, however. Among these were millions of bottles of “medicinal” whiskey that were sold across drugstore counters on real or forged prescriptions. In addition, various American industries were permitted to use denatured alcohol, which had been mixed with obnoxious chemicals to render it unfit for drinking. Millions of gallons of this were illegally diverted, “washed” of noxious chemicals, mixed with tap water and perhaps a dash of real liquor for flavour, and sold to speakeasies or individual customers. Finally, bootleggers took to bottling their own concoctions of spurious liquor, and by the late 1920s stills making liquor from corn had become major suppliers. Faultily distilled batches of this “rotgut” could be dangerously impure and cause blindness, paralysis, and even death.Bootlegging helped lead to the establishment of American organized crime, which persisted long after the repeal of Prohibition. The distribution of liquor was necessarily more complex than other types of criminal activity, and organized gangs eventually arose that could control an entire local chain of bootlegging operations, from concealed distilleries and breweries through storage and transport channels to speakeasies, restaurants, nightclubs, and other retail outlets. These gangs tried to secure and enlarge territories in which they had a monopoly of distribution. Gradually the gangs in different cities began to cooperate with each other, and they extended their methods of organizing beyond bootlegging to the narcotics traffic, gambling rackets, prostitution, labour racketeering, loan-sharking, and extortion. The national American crime syndicate, the Mafia, arose out of the coordinated activities of Italian bootleggers and other gangsters in New York City in the late 1920s and early '30s.In 1933 Prohibition was abandoned. The bootlegger did not become extinct, however. In the late 20th century, prohibition still existed in many U.S. counties and municipalities, and bootlegging continued to thrive as an illegal business. See also prohibition.
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См. также в других словарях:
Bootlegging — [ buːt ; zu englisch bootleg »Stiefelschaft«] das, s, in den USA umgangssprachliche Bezeichnung für Schmuggel und Schwarzhandel, v. a. mit Alkohol. Sie entstand in der amerikanischen Kolonialzeit (18. Jahrhundert), als beim verbotenen … Universal-Lexikon
bootlegging — also boot legging, 1890, from BOOTLEG (Cf. bootleg) (q.v.) … Etymology dictionary
bootlegging — Ⅰ. bootleg UK US /ˈbuːtleg/ adjective [before noun] COMMERCE, E COMMERCE, LAW ► illegally made, copied, or sold: »A bootleg version of the film was recorded at a private showing. »Instead of buying the album, she downloaded a bootleg copy from… … Financial and business terms
bootlegging — noun 1. the act of making or transporting alcoholic liquor for sale illegally (Freq. 1) the Prohibition amendment made bootlegging profitable • Hypernyms: ↑selling, ↑merchandising, ↑marketing 2. the act of selling illegally or without permission… … Useful english dictionary
Bootlegging — Boot|leg|ging das; s <aus gleichbed. engl. amerik. bootlegging zu to bootleg »schmuggeln«> in den USA ugs. Bez. für Schmuggel u. Schwarzhandel … Das große Fremdwörterbuch
bootlegging — bootleg ► ADJECTIVE ▪ (of alcoholic drink or a recording) made or distributed illegally. ► NOUN ▪ an illegal musical recording. DERIVATIVES bootlegger noun bootlegging noun. ORIGIN from a practice among smugglers of hiding bottles in their boots … English terms dictionary
bootlegging — bootÂ·leg || buËtleg adj. produced or distributed illegally, made or sold in an illegal manner n. part of boot which covers the leg; something made or distributed or sold illegally (i.e. alcoholic beverages, musical recordings, etc.) v. make or… … English contemporary dictionary
bootlegging — noun (U) illegally making or selling alcohol bootlegger noun (C) bootleg verb (I, T) … Longman dictionary of contemporary English
bootlegging — See: bootleg … English dictionary
bootlegging — Illegal manufacture or sale of liquor, cigarettes, records, and the like to evade taxing, licensing, copyright, etc. laws. See also contraband gray market goods … Black's law dictionary