- Zurbarán, Francisco de
(baptized Nov. 7, 1598, Fuente de Cantos, Spaindied Aug. 27, 1664, Madrid) Spanish painter.He was apprenticed in 1614 to a painter in Sevilla (Seville), where he lived until 1658 when he moved to Madrid. He had a few royal commissions but remained throughout his life a provincial painter of religious pictures. His apostles, saints, and monks are painted with almost sculptural modeling, and his emphasis on the minutiae of their dress lends verisimilitude to their miracles, visions, and ecstasies. This distinctive combination of naturalism with religious sensibility conforms to the guidelines for Counter-Reformation artists outlined by the Council of Trent. He had numerous commissions from monasteries and churches throughout southern Spain, and many of his works were sent to Lima, Peru. His late devotional paintings show the influence of Bartolomé Esteban Murillo.
* * *▪ Spanish painterbaptized November 7, 1598, Fuente de Cantos, Spaindied August 27, 1664, Madridmajor painter of the Spanish Baroque, especially noted for religious subjects. His work is characterized by Caravaggesque naturalism and tenebrism, the latter a style in which most forms are depicted in shadow but a few are dramatically lighted.Zurbarán was apprenticed 1614–16 to Pedro Díaz de Villanueva in Sevilla (Seville), where he spent the greater part of his life. No works by his master have survived, but Zurbarán's earliest known painting, an Immaculate Conception dated 1616, suggests that he was schooled in the same naturalistic style as his contemporary Diego Velázquez (Velázquez, Diego). From 1617 to 1628 he was living in Llerena, near his birthplace; then he returned to Sevilla, where he settled at the invitation of the city corporation. In 1634 he visited Madrid and painted a series of Labours of Hercules and two scenes of the Defense of Cádiz, which formed part of the decoration of the Salón de Reinos in the Buen Retiro palace. The Adoration of the Kings, from a series painted for the Carthusian monastery at Jerez, is signed with the title “Painter to the King” and dated 1638, the year in which Zurbarán decorated a ceremonial ship presented to the king by the city of Sevilla. The paintings for the Buen Retiro are the only royal commissions and the only mythological or historical subjects by Zurbarán that are known. His contact with the court had little effect on his artistic evolution; he remained throughout his life a provincial artist and was par excellence a painter of religious life. In 1658 Zurbarán moved to Madrid.Zurbarán's personal style was already formed in Sevilla by 1629, and its development was probably stimulated by the early works of Velázquez and by the works of José de Ribera (Ribera, José de). It was a style that lent itself well to portraiture and still life, but it found its most characteristic expression in his religious subjects. Indeed Zurbarán uses naturalism more convincingly than other exponents for the expression of intense religious devotion. His apostles, saints, and monks are painted with almost sculptural modeling and with an emphasis on the minutiae of their dress that gives verisimilitude to their miracles, visions, and ecstasies. This distinctive combination of realism and religious sensibility conforms to the Counter-Reformation guidelines for artists outlined by the Council of Trent (1545–63). Zurbarán's art was popular with monastic orders in Sevilla and the neighbouring provinces, and he received commissions for many large cycles. Of these, only the legends of St. Jerome and of the Hieronymite monks (1638–39) that decorate the chapel and sacristy of the Hieronymite monastery at Guadalupe have remained in situ. Little is known of his production in the 1640s apart from an altarpiece at Zafra (1643–44) and records of a large number of paintings destined for Lima, Peru (1647). By 1658 both the style and the content of Zurbarán's paintings had undergone a change that can be attributed to the influence of Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban). In his late devotional pictures, such as Holy Family and Immaculate Conception (1659 and 1661, respectively), the figures have become more idealized and less solid in form, and their expression of religious emotion is marred by sentimentality. Zurbarán had several followers whose works have been confused with his.Additional ReadingJonathan Brown, Francisco de Zurbarán (1991); Julián Gállego and José Gudiol, Zurbarán, 1598–1664 (1977, reissued 1987; originally published in Spanish, 1976).
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Zurbaran, Francisco — • Artist born in the suburb of Fuente de Cantos in Estramadure, on the boundaries of Andalusia, Nov., 1598 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Zurbaran, Francisco — • Artist born in the suburb of Fuente de Cantos in Estramadure, on the boundaries of Andalusia, Nov., 1598 Catholic Encyclopedia … Catholic encyclopedia
Zurbarán, Francisco de — (1598 1664) Francisco de Zurbarán was born in Extremadura, a small town near Seville, Spain. In 1625, he married into a family of landowners and merchants, which provided him with the necessary funds to establish a workshop where he catered… … Dictionary of Renaissance art
Zurbarán,Francisco de — Zur·ba·rán (zo͞or bä ränʹ, tho͞or ), Francisco de. 1598 1664. Spanish painter noted for his simple naturalism. His works include still lifes and religious scenes, such as The Adoration of the Shepherds (1638). * * * … Universalium
Zurbarán, Francisco de — ► (1598 1664) Pintor español, uno de los más notables artistas de la escuela sevillana. Fue llamado el Caravaggio español a causa de su paleta oscura, aunque sea por la severidad, el rigor y la austeridad la antítesis de aquel. Obras: Visión de… … Enciclopedia Universal
ZURBARAN, FRANCISCO — Spanish painter, born in Estremadura; did mostly religious subjects; his chef d oeuvre an altar piece in Seville, where he lived and worked (1598 1662) … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Zurbarán — Zurbarán, Francisco de … Enciclopedia Universal
Francisco De Zurbaran — Francisco de Zurbarán Francisco de Zurbarán (1598–1664) est un peintre du siècle d or espagnol. Contemporain et ami de Vélasquez, Zurbarán se distingue dans les peintures religieuses où son art révèle une grande force visuelle et un profond… … Wikipédia en Français
Francisco De Zurbarán — (1598–1664) est un peintre du siècle d or espagnol. Contemporain et ami de Vélasquez, Zurbarán se distingue dans les peintures religieuses où son art révèle une grande force visuelle et un profond mysticisme et il devient un artiste emblématique… … Wikipédia en Français
Francisco de Zurbaran — Francisco de Zurbarán Francisco de Zurbarán (1598–1664) est un peintre du siècle d or espagnol. Contemporain et ami de Vélasquez, Zurbarán se distingue dans les peintures religieuses où son art révèle une grande force visuelle et un profond… … Wikipédia en Français