Middle Eastern religion, a syncretic combination of Zoroastrian, Manichaean, Jewish, Nestorian Christian, and Islamic elements.

Its adherents, numbering fewer than 100,000, are found in Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Armenia, the Caucasus, and Iran. Most speak Kurdish. They believe that they were created separately from the rest of humankind and segregate themselves from the rest of society. In Yazīdī belief, seven angels, subordinate to a supreme but uninvolved God, rule the universe. The belief that God restored the Devil to his position as chief of the angels upon the Devil's repentance has earned the Yazīdī an undeserved reputation as Devil worshipers. Their chief saint is Sheikh ʽAdī, a 12th-century Muslim mystic. Their name derives from Yazīd I (с 645–683), from whose supporters they may be descended.

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▪ religious sect
also spelled  Yezīdī, Azīdī, Zedī, or Izdī,  

      religious sect, found primarily in the districts of Mosul, Iraq; Diyarbakır, Tur.; Aleppo, Syria; Armenia and the Caucasus region; and in parts of Iran. The Yazīdī religion is a syncretic combination of Zoroastrian, Manichaean, Jewish, Nestorian Christian, and Islāmic elements. The Yazīdī themselves are thought to be descended from supporters of the Umayyad caliph Yazid I. They believe that they were created quite separately from the rest of mankind, not even being descended from Adam, and they have kept themselves strictly segregated from the people among whom they live. Although scattered and probably numbering fewer than 100,000, they have a well-organized society, with a chief sheikh as the supreme religious head and an emir, or prince, as the secular head.

      The chief divine figure of the Yazīdī is Malak Ṭāʾūs (“Peacock Angel”), who is worshiped in the form of a peacock. He rules the universe with six other angels, but all seven are subordinate to the supreme God, who has had no direct interest in the universe since he created it. The seven angels are worshiped by the Yazīdī in the form of seven bronze or iron peacock figures called sanjaq, the largest of which weighs nearly 700 pounds (320 kg).

      Yazīdī are antidualists; they deny the existence of evil and therefore also reject sin, the devil, and hell. The breaking of divine laws is expiated by way of metempsychosis (reincarnation), or transmigration of souls, which allows for the progressive purification of the spirit. The Yazīdī relate that, when the devil repented of his sin of pride before God, he was pardoned and replaced in his previous position as chief of the angels; this myth has earned the Yazīdī an undeserved reputation as devil worshipers. Shaykh ʿAdī, the chief Yazīdī saint, was a 12th-century Muslim mystic whom the Yazīdī believe to have achieved divinity through metempsychosis.

      The Yazīdī religious centre and object of the annual pilgrimage is the tomb of Shaykh ʿAdī, located at a former Christian monastery in the town of ash-Shaykh ʿAdī, north of Mosul. Two short books written in Arabic, Kitāb al-jilwah (“Book of Revelation”) and Maṣḥaf rash (“Black Writing”), form the sacred scriptures of the Yazīdī, and an Arabic hymn in praise of Shaykh ʿAdī is held in great esteem.

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Universalium. 2010.

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