- Wilson disease
or hepatolenticular degenerationRecessive hereditary defect (see recessiveness) that impairs one's ability to metabolize copper.In affected persons, copper accumulates in the basal ganglia (see ganglion) of the brain (involved in control of movement), causing progressive degeneration; forms a brownish ring at the margin of the cornea of the eye; and is deposited in the liver, gradually leading to cirrhosis. Other symptoms include tremor, lack of coordination, and personality changes. The disease usually appears in the person's teen years or twenties. Early diagnosis and treatment with a high-protein, low-copper diet and a substance to chelate copper can reverse the effects and prevent permanent brain and liver damage.
* * *also called hepatolenticular degeneration,a rare hereditary disorder characterized by abnormal copper transport that results in the accumulation of copper in tissues, such as the brain and liver. The disorder is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain (large group of nuclei involved in the control of movement), the development of a brownish ring at the margin of the cornea, and the gradual replacement of liver cells with fibrous tissue. Wilson disease occurs in roughly 1 in 40,000 people, and symptoms usually first appear in the second or third decade of life.The disorder is caused by autosomal recessive mutations (defects inherited from both parents) in a gene known as ATP7B, which produces a membrane protein that regulates the transport of copper out of cells. When the ATP7B gene is mutated, the membrane protein becomes dysfunctional, resulting in inefficient cellular export of copper. This in turn results in reduced binding of copper to a protein called ceruloplasmin, which is produced in the liver. Normally, ceruloplasmin binds to copper in the liver, circulates through the blood, and delivers the copper atoms to distant cells that use the atoms for basic processes. Mutation of ATP7B also disrupts normal biliary excretion of copper. The combination of decreased binding to ceruloplasmin and disrupted excretion results in the accumulation of copper in the liver, which damages liver cells. Excess free copper atoms that escape from the liver accumulate in other tissues, and the copper that is deposited in the affected structures gives rise to the characteristic symptoms of Wilson disease, which include tremors, incoordination, and personality changes.Diagnosis of Wilson disease is often based on decreased serum levels of copper, decreased serum levels of ceruloplasmin, and increased urine levels of copper. In addition, biopsy to detect copper accumulation in the liver and genetic testing in patients with a family history of the disease can be used to confirm diagnosis. Initial treatment is aimed at reducing tissue levels of copper using chelating substances, such as penicillamine or trientine hydrochloride, that release copper into the bloodstream for excretion in the urine. Later treatment is aimed at maintaining low tissue levels of copper via a high-protein, low-copper diet and administration of a chelating substance and zinc, which blocks intestinal absorption of copper. Early diagnosis and treatment can potentially reverse the effects of the disorder and prevent permanent brain and liver damage.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Wilson disease — Wilson disease. См. гепато церебральная дистрофия. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) … Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.
Wilson disease — An inherited disorder in which too much copper accumulates in the body. Although the accumulation of copper begins at birth, symptoms of the disorder appear later in life, between the ages of 6 and 40. A diagnostic feature of Wilson disease is… … Medical dictionary
Wilson disease protein — (also called ATP7B) is an ATPase that transports copper. PBB Summary section title = summary text = This gene is a member of the P type cation transport ATPase family and encodes a protein with several membrane spanning domains, an ATPase… … Wikipedia
Wilson disease (degeneration syndrome) — Wil·son (disease (degeneration, syndrome) (wilґsən) [Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson, English neurologist, 1877â€“1937] see under disease … Medical dictionary
Kinnier Wilson disease — Wilson d … Medical dictionary
Wilson's disease — Classification and external resources A Kayser Fleischer ring (the brown ring on the edge of the iris) is common in Wilson s disease, especially when neurological symptoms are present ICD … Wikipedia
Wilson-Krankheit — Klassifikation nach ICD 10 E83.0 Morbus Wilson … Deutsch Wikipedia
Disease, Wilson — An inherited disorder in which too much copper accumulates in the body. Although the accumulation of copper begins at birth, symptoms of the disorder appear later in life, between the ages of 6 and 40. A diagnostic feature of Wilson disease is… … Medical dictionary
Disease, Kimmelstiel-Wilson — Diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease). Kimmelstiel Wilson disease is a kidney condition associated with long standing diabetes. It affects the network of tiny blood vessels (the microvasculature) in the glomerulus, a key structure in the kidney… … Medical dictionary
Wilson-Protein — ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide Masse/Länge Primärstruktur 1465 Aminosäuren … Deutsch Wikipedia