- Villanovan culture
Early Iron Age culture in Italy, named after the village where the first site was found in 1853.It appeared in the 10th or 9th century BC as a branch of the Urnfield cultures. Its dead were cremated and the ashes put in a decorated pottery two-story urn covered with a bowl or a helmet-shaped lid, or in a so-called hut urn, a terra-cotta vessel. Expert metalworkers, the Villanovans controlled Tuscany's copper and iron mines. In the later 8th century BC their art and burials were influenced by Greece. Their culture began to fade in the 7th century.
* * *Early Iron Age culture in Italy, named after the village of Villanova, near Bologna, where in 1853 the first of the characteristic cemeteries was found. The Villanovan people branched from the cremating Urnfield cultures (Urnfield culture) of eastern Europe and appeared in Italy in the 10th or 9th century BC. The earliest burial rites were usually with cremation; the ashes of the dead were placed in a decorated pottery ossuary of a biconical, or two-storied, form and covered with a bowl. The lid of the urn was sometimes a pottery imitation of a helmet, either the knobbed bell helmet of eastern central Europe or the crested helmet of northern Europe, the Villanovan helmet par excellence.The Villanovans living in Tuscany also used the terra-cotta hut urn, which imitated a hut of wattle and daub on a frame of poles. The hut urn is characteristic of northern European urn fields, whereas the two-storied urn may be related to similar urns from Hungary and Romania.The Villanovans controlled the rich copper and iron mines of Tuscany and were accomplished metalworkers. In the second half of the 8th century the Villanovans of Tuscany were influenced artistically by Greece; also, inhumation became the predominant burial rite, as it did during the same period in Greece.During the first quarter of the 7th century an Orientalizing civilization, presumably introduced by Etruscans (Etruscan), was superimposed on the Villanovan in Tuscany. The northern Villanovans of the Po Valley, however, continued to produce a geometric art as late as the last quarter of the 6th century, when Etruscan expansion obliterated their culture.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Villanovan culture — The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the seventh century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek… … Wikipedia
culture — /kul cheuhr/, n., v., cultured, culturing. n. 1. the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc. 2. that which is excellent in the arts, manners,… … Universalium
villanovan — I. vən adjective Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: Villanova, town in northeastern Italy, its type station + English an : of or relating to an early Iron Age culture of northern Italy characterized by lake dwellings and urn burials in well… … Useful english dictionary
Villanovan — /vɪləˈnoʊvən/ (say viluh nohvuhn) adjective 1. denoting or relating to an early Iron Age culture in northern Italy, characterised by lake dwellings and the primitive use of iron and extensive use of bronze in the 9th century BC. –noun 2. this… … Australian English dictionary
Villanovan — /vil euh noh veuhn/, adj. 1. Also, Villanova. of or pertaining to the early Iron Age culture of northern Italy, characterized by lake dwellings. n. 2. a member of this people. [after Villanova, a town in NE Italy; see AN] * * * … Universalium
Terramare culture — Terramare or Terramara is a Bronze Age archaeological culture of Italy and Dalmatia, dating to ca. 1500 1100 BC. It takes its name from the black earth ( terremare ) residue of settlement mounds.This civilization is represented by a number of… … Wikipedia
Golasecca culture — Situation of the Golasecca culture to the south of the Hallstatt culture. The Golasecca culture (9th 4th century BCE) was a Celtic  culture in northern Italy … Wikipedia
Canegrate culture — The Canegrate culture was a civilization of Prehistoric Italy whom developed from the recent Bronze Age (13th century BC) until the Iron Age, in the Pianura Padana of what are now western Lombardy, eastern Piedmont and Canton Ticino. The name… … Wikipedia
House Urns culture — thumb|240px|European early Iron Age cultures: dark green Nordic group dark red Jastorf culture yellow Harpstedt Nienburger group orange Celtic groups olive green Pomeranic culture bold green House Urn culture light red east Baltic cultures of… … Wikipedia
Apennine culture — The Apennine culture is a late Bronze Age culture in the Apennines of Italy, dating from around 1350 to 1150 BC.It is contemporary to the late Terramare culture and succeeded by the Villanovan culture … Wikipedia