- Time Warner Inc.
Largest media and entertainment conglomerate in the world.The corporation resulted from the merger of media giant Time Warner Inc. and the online company America Online, Inc., in 2001; originally named AOL Time Warner, the corporation dropped AOL from its name in 2003. Major media outlets include the magazines Time, Sports Illustrated, and People and the cable and broadcast television networks HBO, CNN, TBS, and WB. From its start as a bulletin-board system in 1985, AOL grew to become the world's largest Internet service provider by the mid 1990s. The Internet "stock bubble" of the late 1990s enabled it to acquire the much larger Time Warner Inc. See also Warner Bros.
* * *▪ American companyIntroductionthe largest media and entertainment conglomerate in the world. Time Warner's products encompass magazines, hardcover books, comic books, recorded music, motion pictures, online services, and broadcast and cable television programming and distribution. Its headquarters are in New York City.Warner (Warner Brothers)The initial film company was incorporated in 1923 in Los Angeles as Warner Brothers Pictures, Inc. (Warner Brothers), by Polish immigrant brothers Harry, Albert, Sam, and Jack Warner, who had started out with a nickelodeon in Newcastle, Pennsylvania, U.S., in 1903. In 1927 Warner Brothers introduced music and dialog with the first “talkie” motion picture, The Jazz Singer. The company was one of the leading Hollywood studios throughout the 1930s and '40s, with a stable of actors that included Humphrey Bogart (Bogart, Humphrey), James Cagney (Cagney, James), Bette Davis (Davis, Bette), Errol Flynn (Flynn, Errol), and Edward G. Robinson (Robinson, Edward G.).During the 1950s Warner Brothers, like other movie producers, faced growing competition from television. In 1956 it was forced to sell its film assets made prior to 1950 to Associated Artists. (Ironically, the rights to the material were ultimately returned to the company after they were sold in 1986 to the Turner Broadcasting System [TBS], which, in turn, merged with Time Warner Inc. in 1996.) Television also presented new opportunities for Warner Brothers, where the hit series Maverick (1957) and 77 Sunset Strip (1958) were made. In 1967 Jack Warner sold his remaining stake in the company to Seven Arts Productions. Two years later Warner Bros.–Seven Arts, Inc., was bought by Kinney National Services, Inc., and became part of the newly named Warner Communications Inc. (WCI).Kinney started business as a funeral home company in New Jersey, diversifying into parking lots and construction businesses in the New York City area. Steve Ross, who started with Kinney after marrying the owner's daughter, was co-chief executive officer (CEO) from 1969 to 1972, when he became the sole CEO, president, and chairman of WCI. Ross embarked on an aggressive acquisition strategy, picking up electronic game maker Atari, children's toy maker Knickerbocker Toy, the family recreation company Malibu Grand Prix, the New York Cosmos football (soccer) team, and heirloom maker The Franklin Mint.By the early 1980s WCI encountered financial reversals, culminating in a $500 million loss in 1983. By 1985 the company had divested all the companies mentioned above, and Ross focused WCI on its cable television operations, which had remained profitable. Warner Cable had begun in 1972, and in 1979 WCI had entered a joint deal with American Express Company, creating Warner-Amex cable. The new venture is best known for its attempt to create a two-way cable system called QUBE in Columbus, Ohio. By 1984 QUBE had failed, but the cable television business was thriving, and WCI bought out its Warner-Amex partner for $400 million in 1985. The next year Ross became the highest-paid American executive, with a 10-year $14 million-a-year contract. In 1987 Ross began talks with the president of Time Inc., Nicholas Nicholas, about merging the two companies.Time magazine first appeared on March 3, 1923, and sold 9,000 copies. Its founders, Briton Hadden and Henry R. Luce (Luce, Henry R.), sought readers among the 1,000,000 college-educated citizens in the United States at the time. The magazine made a modest $700 profit in its second year of publication; by 1928 its profits were $125,000 on a circulation of 200,000. Hadden died unexpectedly in 1929, leaving Luce to run the company until he died in 1967. In 1930 Luce launched Fortune, a business monthly, and in 1936 Life, a photojournalism weekly that became one of the nation's most popular periodicals until its slow demise throughout the 1970s. In 1954 the company began the weekly Sports Illustrated. In the 1960s Time Inc. started a book division, Time-Life Books, and acquired Little, Brown & Company, one of the nation's oldest publishers. In 1974 the company started People, a weekly focused on personalities that was an outgrowth of the People section in Time.Time Inc. first moved into the broadcast and entertainment industry in the 1950s but in 1970 announced that it was selling its broadcast holdings to focus exclusively on cable television. The next year it bought a stake in American Television and Communications Corporation, a large cable television operator, and in 1972 it founded Home Box Office (HBO), which became a leading premium cable station. Time Inc. bought complete control of American Television and Communications in 1978. In 1983 HBO launched a joint venture with CBS Inc. (CBS Corporation) and Columbia Pictures (Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc.) for the formation of Tri-Star Pictures, which later came wholly under the control of Columbia.Time WarnerBy the time Ross and Nicholas began their merger talks, Time Inc. was the third largest cable operator in the country, including its 23 percent stake in TBS. Despite initiating talks in late 1987, the merger that created Time Warner was not completed until 1989, in part because Time Inc.'s executives delayed the merger until official investigations into the financial scandals of both WCI and Ross were cleared up. Ross shared CEO duties until early 1991 when Nicholas left the company. Ross died in December 1992, making Gerald (Jerry) Levin CEO of Time Warner Inc.Throughout the 1990s Time Warner expanded into new markets, including a Spanish-language version of People and a children's edition of Time. The WB, a broadcast television network founded by Time Warner, first aired in January 1995. In 1996 the company acquired the outstanding shares of TBS, which added not only cable television operations and the Warner Bros. film archive but the Atlanta Braves and Atlanta Hawks sports teams as well. In late 1999 Time Warner began merger talks with America Online, Inc. (AOL).AOL's roots start in 1982 when Control Video Corporation of Dulles, Virginia, initially offered online services to users of Apple (Apple Inc.) II and Commodore 64 computers. In 1985 the company became Quantum Computer Services Inc. (QCS). America Online began as a special QCS service dedicated to users of the Apple Macintosh computer.In 1991 QCS named Steve Case (Case, Steve) president, then its CEO. That year the company changed its name to America Online. It had 150,000 subscribers and $20 million in annual revenue. AOL became a public company in 1992. In 1993 the company rejected an informal $268 million acquisition offer from the Microsoft Corporation. In 1994 AOL launched an Internet division, and by the next year it was the leading Internet service provider. AOL surpassed 10 million subscribers in 1997 and the next year acquired CompuServe, its top competitor, along with its 2.6 million members. That year more messages were exchanged over AOL every day than were delivered by the U.S. Postal Service.In January 2000 merger talks between Case and Levin were announced. Later that year AOL reached 27 million subscribers. The $106 billion merger between AOL and Time Warner did not get final shareholder and regulatory approval until January 2001. Case was named chairman of AOL Time Warner Inc., and Levin became CEO. That summer AOL's membership cleared the 30 million mark.In 2002 AOL Time Warner reported the largest quarterly loss ever for a U.S. company, $54.24 billion, following the collapse of the Internet stock market as investors pulled out of stocks with too much emphasis on Internet content or services. In 2003 the company changed its name back to Time Warner Inc.Mark HallAdditional ReadingClive Hirschhorn, The Warner Bros. Story (1979, reissued 1986), is a large-format book full of photos of Warner movie stars. Here's Looking At You, Warner Bros. (1993), narrated by Clint Eastwood, Barbra Streisand, and others, is a lively, if self-serving, video history of the movie studio. Robert E. Herzstein, Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the Man Who Created the American Century (1994), stresses Luce's role as a molder of political opinion in the United States. Connie Bruck, Master of the Game: Steve Ross and the Creation of Time Warner (1994), is a flattering biography of Ross that does not overlook his failings as a businessman, including his financial scandals. Richard M. Clurman, To The End Of Time: The Seduction and Conquest of a Media Empire (1992), is a critical look at how Time Inc. executives profited from the sale of the company to Warner Communications. Kara Swisher, AOL.com: How Steve Case Beat Bill Gates, Nailed the Netheads and Made Millions in the War for the Web, updated ed. (1999), is an account of AOL's rise that looks closely at the personalities behind the company and the competition with Microsoft.Mark Hall
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