or T'ien

In indigenous Chinese religion, the supreme power reigning over humans and lesser gods.

The term refers to a deity, to impersonal nature, or to both. As a god, Tian is an impersonal power, in contrast to the supreme ruler Shangdi, but the two are closely identified and their names are sometimes used synonymously. In later references, Tian is likened to nature or fate. Scholars generally agree that Tian was the source of moral law, but they long debated whether Tian responded to pleas and rewarded and punished human actions or whether events merely followed Tian's order and principles.
(as used in expressions)
Feng t'ien
T'ien chin
T'ien Shan Celestial Mountains
Heaven's Gate
kingdom of heaven

* * *

Universalium. 2010.