Tasman, Abel Janszoon

Tasman, Abel Janszoon
born 1603?, Lutjegast, Neth.
died probably before Oct. 22, 1659, certainly before Feb. 5, 1661

Dutch explorer.

In the service of the Dutch East India Company, he made exploratory and trading voyages to East and Southeast Asia (1634–39). In 1642 he was sent by Anthony van Diemen to find the hypothetical southern continent of the Pacific and a possible route to Chile. Sailing from Batavia (modern Jakarta), he reached 49° S at 94° E, then turned north and discovered land he named Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), then sailed along the coast of New Zealand, believing it to be the southern continent. He also discovered Tonga and the Fiji Islands. On his next voyage (1644) he sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria and along the northern and western coasts of Australia.

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▪ Dutch explorer and navigator
born 1603?, Lutjegast, Neth.
died , probably before Oct. 22, 1659, certainly before Feb. 5, 1661

      greatest of the Dutch navigators and explorers, who discovered Tasmania, New Zealand, Tonga, and the Fiji Islands. On his first voyage (1642–43) in the service of the Dutch East India Company, Tasman explored the Indian Ocean, Australasia, and the southern Pacific; on his second voyage (1644) he traveled in Australian and South Pacific waters.

      Tasman entered the service of the Dutch East India Company in 1632 or 1633 and made his first voyage of exploration to Ceram (modern Seram) Island (in modern Indonesia) as captain of the Mocha in 1634. He sailed in 1639 under Commander Mathijs Hendrickszoon Quast on an expedition in search of the “islands of gold and silver” in the seas east of Japan. After a series of trading voyages to Japan, Formosa (Taiwan), Cambodia, and Sumatra, he was chosen by the governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, Anthony van Diemen, to command the most ambitious of all Dutch voyages for the exploration of the Southern Hemisphere.

      By 1642, Dutch navigators had discovered discontinuous stretches of the western coast of Australia, but whether these coasts were continental and connected with the hypothetical southern continent of the Pacific remained unknown. Tasman was assigned to solve this problem, following instructions based on a memoir by Frans Jacobszoon Visscher, his chief pilot. He was instructed to explore the Indian Ocean from west to east, south of the ordinary trade route, and, proceeding eastward into the Pacific (if this proved possible), to investigate the practicability of a sea passage eastward to Chile, to rediscover the Solomon Islands of the Spaniards, and to explore New Guinea.

      Leaving Batavia (modern Jakarta) on Aug. 14, 1642, with two ships, the Heemskerk and Zeehaen, Tasman sailed to Mauritius (September 5–October 8), then southward and eastward, reaching his most southerly latitude of 49° S at about 94° E. Turning north he discovered land on November 24 at 42°20′ S, and he skirted its southern shores, naming it Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania). A council of officers on December 5 decided against further investigation, so he missed the opportunity of discovering Bass Strait. Continuing eastward, he sighted on December 13, at 42°10′ S, the coast of South Island, New Zealand, and explored it northward, entering the strait between North Island and South Island, supposing it to be a bay. He left New Zealand on Jan. 4, 1643, at North Cape, under the impression that he had probably discovered the west coast of the southern continent, which might be connected with the “Staten Landt” (Staten Island) discovered by W.C. Schouten and Jacques Le Maire south of South America—hence the name of Staten Landt, which Tasman gave to his discovery in honour of the States General (the Dutch legislature).

      Convinced by the swell that the passage to Chile existed, Tasman now turned northeast, and on January 21 he discovered Tonga and on February 6 the Fiji Islands. Turning northwest, the ships reached New Guinea waters on April 1 and Batavia on June 14, 1643, completing a 10-month voyage on which only 10 men had died from illness. Tasman had circumnavigated Australia without seeing it, thus establishing that it was separated from the hypothetical southern continent.

      The council of the company decided, however, that Tasman had been negligent in his investigation of the lands that he discovered and of the passage to Chile. They sent him on a new expedition to the “South Land” in 1644 with instructions to establish the relationships of New Guinea, the “great known South Land” (western Australia), Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), and the “unknown South Land.” Tasman sailed from Batavia on February 29, steering southeast along the south coast of New Guinea, sailing southeast into Torres Strait (which he mistook for a shallow bay), coasting Australia's Gulf of Carpentaria, and then following the north coast and then the west coast of Australia to 22° S.

      Although he was rewarded with the rank of commander and was made a member of the Council of Justice of Batavia, his second voyage was also a disappointment to the company because it had failed to reveal lands of potential wealth. In 1647 Tasman commanded a trading fleet to Siam (now Thailand), and in the following year he commanded a war fleet against the Spaniards in the Philippines. He left the service of the Dutch East India Company several years later.

Helen Margaret Wallis

Additional Reading
Andrew Sharp, The Voyages of Abel Janszoon Tasman (1968); Ab Hoving and Cor Emke, The Ships of Abel Tasman (2000; originally published in Dutch, 2000).

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Tasman,Abel Janszoon — Tas·man (tăzʹmən, täsʹmän), Abel Janszoon. 1603? 1659. Dutch navigator and explorer who was the first European to discover Tasmania and New Zealand (1642). * * * …   Universalium

  • Tasman, Abel Janszoon — ► (1603 59) Navegante neerlandés. En 1642 descubrió Tasmania y, en 1643, Tonga y Fidji. * * * (¿1603?, Lutjegast, Países Bajos–probablemente antes de 22 oct. 1659, con certeza antes de 5 feb. 1661). Explorador holandés. Al servicio de la Compañía …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Abel Janszoon Tasman — Abel Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman (* 1603 in Lutjegast, Groningen; † 10. Oktober 1659 in Batavia, Java) war ein niederländischer Seefahrer. Auf seinen Entdeckungsreisen umsegelte er den australischen Kontinent und erreichte am 13. Dezember 1642… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Abel Janszoon Tasman — Abel Tasman Pour les articles homonymes, voir Tasman. Abel Tasman Abel Janszoon Tasman, navigateur néerlandais, né en 1603 à …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Abel Janszoon Tasman — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Abel Tasman Obtenido de Abel Janszoon Tasman …   Wikipedia Español

  • TASMAN, Abel Jansz (1603-1659) — discoverer of Tasmania and New Zealand was born in Groningen, Holland, in 1603. We first hear of him at the end of 1631 when he, a widower living at Amsterdam, married Jannetjie Tjaers. He was shortly afterwards in the East Indies Company service …   Dictionary of Australian Biography

  • Abel Janszoon Tasman — noun Dutch navigator who was the first European to discover Tasmania and New Zealand (1603 1659) • Syn: ↑Tasman, ↑Abel Tasman • Instance Hypernyms: ↑navigator …   Useful english dictionary

  • Abel Janszoon Tasman — n. (1603 1659) Dutch navigator and explorer who was the first European to reach Tasmania and New Zealand …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Tasman — Tasman, Abel Janszoon …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Abel Tasman — Abel Janszoon Tasman Fragmento del «Retrato de Abel Tasman, su mujer e hijas» atribuido a Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp, 1637 (no completamente autenticado)[1 …   Wikipedia Español

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