- Taira Kiyomori
born 1118, Japandied March 21, 1181, KyōtoLeader of the powerful Taira family and the first member of the warrior class (samurai) to rule Japan.The Taira family had made itself useful to the imperial court quelling pirates on Japan's Inland Sea. In 1156, when the retired emperor Sutoku (see insei) enlisted the aid of the Minamoto warrior family to help in a rebellion against the reigning emperor Go-Shirakawa, Kiyomori supported Go-Shirakawa and defeated the Minamoto. The Minamoto staged a comeback in 1159–60, but Kiyomori defeated them again, executing all the Minamoto males except the children Minamoto Yoritomo and Minamoto Yoshitsune, who would later overthrow him. Temporarily victorious, Kiyomori received the highest court rank and manipulated the throne by marrying his daughters into the imperial family. The Taira forces took on the effete ways of the aristocrats and were no match for the frontier-hardy Minamoto, who defeated them in 1185. See also Gempei War; Kamakura period.
* * *▪ Japanese rulerborn , 1118, Japandied March 21, 1181, Kyōtofirst of the Japanese soldier-dictators, whose victories in the Hōgen and Heiji disturbances marked the ascendancy of the provincial warrior class to positions of supreme power.Kiyomori succeeded his father, Tadamori (died 1153), as head of the powerful Taira, a warrior clan in the Inland Sea area of western Japan, where its members had become the major military support of the Imperial court.In 1156 a conflict for power erupted between the retired emperor Sutoku and his younger brother, the reigning emperor Go-Shirakawa (Shirakawa, Go-). Sutoku attempted a coup d'état with the support of the Minamoto warrior clan, led by Minamoto Tameyoshi. Kiyomori supported Go-Shirakawa in the ensuing conflict, known as the Hōgen Disturbance (Hōgen no ran), one of the bloodiest and bitterest in Japanese history, and emerged victorious, partly because of the defection of Tameyoshi's son, Yoshitomo. Kiyomori ruthlessly executed his enemies and ordered Yoshitomo to cut off his own father's head. Yoshitomo refused, but another Minamoto eventually carried out the order.Dissatisfied with his share of the spoils, Yoshitomo took advantage of Kiyomori's absence from the capital during the winter of 1159–60 to seize power, an act that precipitated the Heiji Disturbance. Although taken by surprise, Kiyomori gathered what forces he could muster and advanced in a series of daring, cleverly executed maneuvers. Victorious, he returned to the capital and annihilated his enemies, allowing only Yoshitomo's two infant sons to live, a leniency he later regretted. The Heiji Disturbance became the subject of many stories and legends.In 1167 Kiyomori was made dajō-daijin, or prime minister, which was the highest position of any court official. Preferring to exercise his authority in the traditional manner—by marrying his daughters into the Imperial family and having his relatives appointed to high positions—Kiyomori dominated the Emperor instead of ruling directly. He also managed to marry his wife's younger sister to the then retired Go-Shirakawa, whose son became the crown prince. In 1180 Kiyomori placed his two-year-old grandson on the throne as the emperor Antoku and moved the capital to his own city of Fukuhara (modern Kōbe), which provided ready access to the Inland Sea and the rich trade routes with China. In the same year one of Kiyomori's trusted chieftains issued a call to his followers throughout the country to revolt. The initial rebellion was crushed, but Minamoto Yoritomo, Yoshitomo's son who had been spared in his youth, seized the opportunity to raise a revolt, in which he gained the support of many warriors in the outlying provinces.An army was dispatched from the capital to quell the rebellion, but the Taira forces, weakened by many years of luxurious living, were no match for the frontier troops and were immediately defeated. Turning over all government administration to his son, Kiyomori devoted himself to building a new army, but he died before the task could be accomplished. In 1185 Yoritomo annihilated the last of the Taira clan, including the emperor Antoku, and established Minamoto supremacy throughout Japan.
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Taira Kiyomori — (1118, Japón–21 mar. 1181, Kioto). Líder de la poderosa familia Taira y primer miembro de la clase guerrera (samurai) en gobernar Japón. La corte imperial se había valido de los Taira para reprimir a los piratas en el mar Interior de Japón. En… … Enciclopedia Universal
Taira no Kiyomori — Este artículo está titulado de acuerdo a la onomástica japonesa, en que el apellido precede al nombre. Taira Kiyomori (1118 21 de marzo de 1181, Kioto) fue un líder del poderoso clan Taira y el primer miembro de la clase guerrera samurái del … Wikipedia Español
Taira Family — ▪ Japanese clan Introduction also called Heike Japanese samurai (warrior) clan of great power and influence in the 12th century. The genealogy and history of the family have been traced in detail from 825, when the name Taira was given to … Universalium
Taira no Kiyomori — Taira no Kiyomori, Zeichnung von Kikuchi Yōsai (1788–1878) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Taira no kiyomori — Peinture de Taira no Kiyomori Taira no Kiyomori (平 清盛) (1118 1181) est un général et homme d État japonais de l ère Heian, chef du clan Taira, une des principales familles de l époque. Il a mis en place le premier gouvernement samouraï de l… … Wikipédia en Français
TAIRA NO KIYOMORI — (1118 1181) Appartenant à une famille dont certains membres sont restés à la cour, investis de charges militaires ou de gouvernements provinciaux, tandis que d’autres se sont installés dans les provinces, souvent en qualité d’officiers domaniaux… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Taira no Munemori — In this Japanese name, the family name is Taira . Taira no Munemori (平 宗盛?, 1147 – June 19, 1185) was heir to Taira no Kiyomori, and one of the Taira clan s chief commanders in the Genpei War. As his father … Wikipedia
Taïra — Taira Le clan Taira (Hira) (平) fut un des quatre clans qui dominèrent la politique du Japon durant l ère Heian, les trois autres étant les Fujiwara, les Minamoto et les Tachibana. Le clan est également connu sous les noms de Heike (平家) et Heishi… … Wikipédia en Français
Taira — Taira, einer der Sippennamen für Nachkommen des japanischen Kaiserhauses, die in den Untertanenstand versetzt waren. Die einzelnen Linien des auch Heike oder Heishi genannten Hauses benannten sich nach dem Kaiser, von dem sie abstammten. Die… … Universal-Lexikon
Taira (Begriffsklärung) — Taira bezeichnet: eine Stadt in der Präfektur Fukushima: Taira (Iwaki) (heute: Iwaki) ein Lehen mit Sitz in dieser: Iwaki Taira ein japanisches Adelsgeschlecht: Taira den Familiennamen folgender Personen: Taira no Kiyomori (1118–1181), General in … Deutsch Wikipedia