Stuart, house of


Stuart, house of
or house of Stewart or Steuart

Royal house of Scotland (1371–1714) and of England (1603–49, 1660–1714).

The earliest members of the family were stewards in 11th-century Brittany; in the 12th century a member entered the service of David I (r. 1124–53) in Scotland and received the title of steward. The 6th steward married the daughter of King Robert I the Bruce, and in 1371 their son became King Robert II, the first Stewart king of Scotland (r. 1371–90). His descendants in the 15th–17th centuries included the Scottish monarchs James I, James II, James III, James IV, Mary, Queen of Scots, and James VI (who inherited the English throne as James I). The Stuarts (who eventually adopted the French-influenced spelling of their name) were excluded from the English throne after Charles I until the restoration of Charles II in 1660. He was followed by James II, William III and Mary II, and Anne. The Stuart royal line ended in 1714, and the British crown passed to the house of Hanover, despite later claims by James II's son James Edward (the Old Pretender) and grandson Charles Edward (the Young Pretender).

* * *

▪ Scottish and English royal family
also spelled  Stewart, or Steuart,  

      royal house of Scotland from 1371 and of England from 1603. It was interrupted in 1649 by the establishment of the Commonwealth but was restored in 1660. It ended in 1714, when the British crown passed to the house of Hanover.

      The first spelling of the family name was undoubtedly Stewart, the old Scots version, but during the 16th century French influence led to the adoption of the spellings Stuart and Steuart, because of the absence of the letter “w” in the French alphabet.

      The family can be traced back to 11th-century Brittany, where for at least four generations they were stewards to the counts of Dol. In the early 12th century they appeared in England, and Walter, third son of the 4th steward of Dol, entered the service of David I, king of Scots, and was later appointed his steward, an office that was confirmed to his family by King Malcolm IV in 1157. Walter (d. 1326), the 6th steward, married Marjory, daughter of King Robert I the Bruce, in 1315, and in 1371 their son Robert, as King Robert II, became the first Stewart king of Scotland. The royal Stewarts had an unlucky history, dogged by sudden death; and seven succeeded to the throne as minors.

      The direct male line terminated with the death of James V in 1542. His daughter Mary, Queen of Scots (d. 1587), was succeeded in 1567 by her only son (by Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley), James VI.

      In 1603 James VI, through his great-grandmother Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England, inherited the English throne as King James I. After the execution (1649) of James's son Charles I, the Stuarts were excluded from the throne until the restoration of Charles II in 1660. Charles II was succeeded in 1685 by his Roman Catholic brother James II (d. 1701), who so alienated the sympathies of his subjects that in 1688 William, prince of Orange, was invited to come “to the rescue of the laws and religion of England.” James fled, and by the Bill of Rights (1689) and the Act of Settlement (1701), which denied the crown to any Roman Catholic, he and his descendants were excluded from the throne. But Stuarts still ruled in England and Scotland, for William was the son of Charles II's sister Mary, and his wife Mary was James II's elder daughter. They became joint sovereigns as William III and Mary II. They left no issue, and the Act of Settlement secured the succession to Mary's sister Anne (d. 1714) and on her death without issue to Sophia, electress of Hanover, a granddaughter of James I; Sophia's son and heir became George I, first of the British House of Hanover.

      The last male Stuarts of the British royal line were James II's son James Edward (d. 1766), the Old Pretender, and his sons Charles Edward (d. 1788), the Young Pretender (known as Bonnie Prince Charlie), who died without legitimate issue, and Henry (d. 1807), Cardinal Duke of York.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mount Stuart House — from the front Mount Stuart House on the east coast of the Isle of Bute, Scotland is a Neo Gothic country house with extensive gardens. Mount Stuart was designed by Sir Robert Rowand Anderson for the 3rd Marquess of Bute in the late 1870s, to… …   Wikipedia

  • Colonel John Stuart House — U.S. National Register of Historic Places U.S. National Historic Landmark …   Wikipedia

  • Dr. Stuart House — U.S. National Register of Historic Places …   Wikipedia

  • Stuart Parker (Neighbours) — Infobox soap character colour = Television colour|Neighbours name = Stuart Parker series=Neighbours first = December 13, 2001 Episode 3919 nickname = Stu Chooka Chook alias = gender = Male age = born = death = occupation = Police Constable title …   Wikipedia

  • Stuart style — Style of visual arts produced in Britain during the reign of the house of Stuart (1603–1714, excepting the interregnum of Oliver Cromwell). Though the period encompassed several specific stylistic movements, artists through much of the period… …   Universalium

  • Stuart — /stooh euhrt, styooh /, n. 1. a member of the royal family that ruled in Scotland from 1371 to 1714 and in England from 1603 to 1714. 2. Charles Edward ( the Young Pretender or Bonnie Prince Charlie ), 1720 80, grandson of James II. 3. Also,… …   Universalium

  • house — n., adj. /hows/; v. /howz/, n., pl. houses /how ziz/, v., housed, housing, adj. n. 1. a building in which people live; residence for human beings. 2. a household. 3. (often cap.) a family, including ancestors and descendants: the great houses of… …   Universalium

  • House — /hows/, n. Edward Mandell /man dl/, ( Colonel House ), 1858 1938, U.S. diplomat. * * * (as used in expressions) House of Building Appomattox Court House Babenberg House of Bourbon House of Burgesses House of Commons House of house cat Guise house …   Universalium

  • House of Orange-Nassau — Royal Coat of arms of the Netherlands Country Netherlands, England, Scotland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Orange, Nassau …   Wikipedia

  • House of Wessex — Golden Wyvern of Wessex[1] Country Kingdom of Wessex, Kingdom of England Titles King of Wessex King of England …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.