- Stanisław I
orig. Stanisław Leszczyńskiborn Oct. 20, 1677, Lwów, Pol.died Feb. 23, 1766, Lunéville, FranceKing of Poland (1704–09, 1733).The son of a Polish noble, he became king when Charles XII of Sweden invaded Poland (1702), deposed King Augustus II, and placed Stanisław on the throne (1704). When Sweden was defeated by the Russians in 1709, Augustus regained the throne, and Stanisław settled in France, where his daughter Marie married Louis XV. After Augustus's death (1733), Stanisław was elected king of Poland, but Russia invaded to prevent an alliance with France, causing the War of the Polish Succession. Deposed again, Stanisław was granted the provinces of Lorraine and Bar, where he promoted economic development and made his court at Lunéville a cultural centre.
* * *▪ king of Polandoriginal name Stanisław Leszczyńskiborn Oct. 20, 1677, Lwów, Pol. [now Lviv, Ukraine]died Feb. 23, 1766, Lunéville, Fr.king of Poland (1704–09, 1733) during a period of great problems and turmoil. He was a victim of foreign attempts to dominate the country.Stanisław was born into a powerful magnate family of Great Poland, and he had the opportunity to travel in western Europe as a young man. In 1702 King Charles XII of Sweden invaded Poland as part of a continuing series of conflicts between the powers of northern Europe. Charles forced the Polish nobility to depose Poland's king, Augustus II (Frederick Augustus I of Saxony), and then placed Stanisław on the throne (1704).Poland, weak and fragmented, had become a marching ground for foreign armies who ravaged the country at will. In 1709 Charles was defeated by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava and withdrew to Sweden, leaving Stanisław without any real support. Augustus II regained the Polish throne, and Stanisław left the country to settle in the French province of Alsace. In 1725 Stanisław's daughter Marie married Louis XV of France.When Augustus died in 1733, Stanisław sought to regain the Polish throne with the help of French support for his candidacy. After traveling to Warsaw in disguise, he was elected king of Poland by an overwhelming majority of the Diet. But before he could be crowned, Russia and Austria, fearing Stanisław would unite Poland in the Swedish-French alliance, invaded the country to annul his election. Stanisław was once more deposed, and, under Russian pressure, a small minority in the Diet elected the Saxon elector Frederick Augustus II to the Polish throne as Augustus III. Stanisław retreated to the city of Gdańsk (Danzig) to wait for French assistance, which did not come. Fleeing before the city fell to its Russian besiegers, he then journeyed to Königsberg in Prussia, where he directed guerrilla warfare against the new king and his Russian supporters. The Peace of Vienna in 1738 recognized Augustus III as king of Poland but allowed Stanisław to keep his royal titles while granting him the provinces of Lorraine and Bar for life.In Lorraine, Stanisław proved to be a good administrator and promoted economic development. His court at Lunéville became famous as a cultural centre, and he founded an academy of science at Nancy and a military college. In 1749 he published a book entitled Free Voice to Make Freedom Safe, an outline of his proposed changes in the Polish constitution. Editions of his letters to his daughter Marie, to the kings of Prussia, and to Jacques Hulin, his minister at Versailles, have been published.
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Stanisław — ist ein männlicher Vorname. Es ist die obersorbische (IPA: stanʲisu̯au̯) und polnische (IPA: sta nʲiswav). Form eines verbreiteten slawischen Vornamens. Die eingedeutschten Versionen lauten Stanislaw und Stanislaus. Die weibliche Form des Namens… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Stanisław Cz. — Stanisław Czabański (born ca. 1958/1959 died April 21, 1988) was a Polish criminal, who hold a distinction of being the last person executed in Poland.At age of 29 he was convicted and sentenced to death for a brutal rape and murder of woman in… … Wikipedia
Stanislaw, St. — Stanislaw, St., Stanislaus, Name von 2 poln. Heiligen. – S., der Bischof von Krakau, trat dem König Boleslaus Smialy (1058–79), einem sitten und zügellosen Despoten, mit Vorstellungen entgegen, zog sich dann von den Hoftagen zurück u. als der… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Stanislaw I. — Stanislaw I. Leszczynski, geb. 1677 zu Lemberg, gehörte einem reichbegüterten Geschlechte an, wurde 1704 durch den Einfluß Karls XII. von Schweden zum König von Polen gewählt, konnte sich nach der Schlacht von Pultawa nicht mehr behaupten, floh… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Stanislaw II — Stanislaw II. August Poniatowski (s. d.). geb. 1732 zu Wolczyn, gewann als Gesandter zu Petersburg die Gunst Katharinas II., die ihn 1764 zum König von Polen machte. Die erste Theilung von Polen (1772) vermochte er nicht zu verhindern; 1794… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Stanislaw — Stanislaus ist ein männlicher Vorname slawischen Ursprungs. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Namensvarianten 2 Bekannte Namensträger 2.1 Heilige 2.2 Könige 2.3 Sonstige … Deutsch Wikipedia
Stanislaw — (as used in expressions) Lesniewski Stanislaw Stanislaw Leshniewski Mikolajczyk Stanislaw Reymont Wladyslaw Stanislaw Wladyslaw Stanislaw Rejment Stanislaw I Stanislaw Leszczynski Stanislaw II August Poniatowski Stanislaw Poniatowski Ulam… … Universalium
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Stanislaw — Recorded in many forms including Stanislaw, Stanislawski, (Polish) Stanislav (Czech) Stanislavsky (Russian), and many diminutives and patronymics such as Stanic, Stanek, Stanczyk, Staniisz and apparently Stanex, as well as Staniak, Stasiak and… … Surnames reference