- Songhai empire
or Songhay empireAncient Muslim state, West Africa.Centred on the middle Niger River in what is now central Mali, it eventually extended to the Atlantic coast and into Niger and Nigeria. Established by the Songhai people с AD 800, it reached its greatest extent in the 16th century before falling to Moroccan forces in 1591. Its important cities were Gao and Timbuktu.
* * *▪ historical empire, Africaalso spelled Songhay,great trading state of West Africa (fl. 15th–16th century), centred on the middle reaches of the Niger River in what is now central Mali and eventually extending west to the Atlantic coast and east into Niger and Nigeria.Though the Songhai people are said to have established themselves in the city of Gao about AD 800, they did not regard it as their capital until the beginning of the 11th century during the reign of the dia (king) Kossoi, a Songhai convert to Islām. Gao so prospered and expanded during the next 300 years that from 1325 to 1375 the rulers of Mali added it to their empire. In about 1335 the dia line of rulers gave way to the sunni, or shi, one of whom, Sulaiman-Mar, is said to have won back Gao's independence. The century or so of vicissitudes that followed was ended by the accession in about 1464 of Sonni ʿAlī, also known as ʿAlī Ber (d. 1492). By repulsing a Mossi attack on Timbuktu, the second most important city of Songhai, and by defeating the Dogon and Fulani in the hills of Bandiagara, he had by 1468 rid the empire of any immediate danger. He later evicted the Tuareg from Timbuktu, which they had occupied since 1433, and, after a siege of seven years, took Jenne (Djenné) in 1473 and by 1476 had dominated the lakes region of the middle Niger to the west of Timbuktu. He repulsed a Mossi attack on Walata to the northwest in 1480 and subsequently discouraged raiding by all the inhabitants of the Niger valley's southern periphery. The civil policy of Sonni ʿAlī was to conciliate the interests of his pagan pastoralist subjects with those of the Muslim city dwellers, on whose wealth and scholarship the Songhai empire depended. His son Sonni Baru (reigned 1493), who sided completely with the pastoralists, was deposed by the rebel Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr Ture, also known as Muḥammad I Askia (reigned 1493–1528), who welded the central region of the western Sudan into a single empire. He too fought the Mossi of Yatenga, tackled Borgu, in what is now northwestern Nigeria (1505)—albeit with little success—and mounted successful campaigns against the Diara (1512), against the kingdom of Fouta-Toro in Senegal, and to the east against the Hausa states. In order to win control of the principal caravan markets to the north, he ordered his armies to found a colony in and around Agadez in Aïr. He was deposed by his eldest son, Musa, in 1528. Throughout the dynastic squabbles of successive reigns (Askia Musa, 1528–31; Bengan Korei, also known as Askia Muḥammad II, 1531–37; Askia Ismail, 1537–39; Askia Issihak I, 1539–49), the Muslims in the towns continued to act as middlemen in the profitable gold trade with the states of Akan in central Guinea. The peace and prosperity of Askia Dāwūd's reign (1549–82) was followed by a raid initiated by Sultan Aḥmad al-Manṣūr of Morocco on the salt deposits of Taghaza. The situation, which continued to worsen under Muḥammad Bāni (1586–88), culminated disastrously for Songhai under Issihak II (1588–91) when Moroccan forces, using firearms, advanced into the Songhai empire to rout his forces, first at Tondibi and then at Timbuktu and Gao. Retaliatory guerrilla action of the pastoral Songhai failed to restore the empire, the economic and administrative centres of which remained in Moroccan hands.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
SONGHAÏ (EMPIRE) — SONGHAÏ EMPIRE Comme celle du Mali, l’origine du Songhaï est obscure. C’est à Koukia, sur le Niger, en aval de Gao que vit la population Songhaï. La chefferie appartient aux Dia. Vers l’an 1000, l’un d’eux se convertit à l’islam et transfère la… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Songhai Empire — Infobox Former Country native name = conventional long name = Songhai Empire common name = Songhai Empire continent = Africa region = North West Africa country = Mali status = Empire government type = Monarchy| year start = c. 1340 year end =… … Wikipedia
Empire of Great Fulo — ← … Wikipedia
Songhai — may refer to: Safiya Songhai (born 1984), American film director Songhai (album), a 1988 world music album Songhai (musical collaboration), a world music group Songhai Empire, a former country Songhai languages, a group of closely related… … Wikipedia
Songhai — /song guy /, n., pl. Songhais, (esp. collectively) Songhai for 1. 1. a member of a group of peoples living along the Niger River in the area of Timbuktu and Gao in Mali and in adjacent areas of Niger and Burkina Faso. 2. a West African empire… … Universalium
empire — /em puyeur/; for 8 10 also /om pear /, n. 1. a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government: usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French… … Universalium
Empire Songhai — Empire songhaï Carte de l empire songhai L Empire songhaï, des Sonrhaïs, fut fondé à Koukia au VIIe siècle, suite aux métissages qui s effectuèrent entre les Sonrhaïs, et les Berbères dirigés par le chef Za e … Wikipédia en Français
Empire Songhaï — Carte de l empire songhai L Empire songhaï, des Sonrhaïs, fut fondé à Koukia au VIIe siècle, suite aux métissages qui s effectuèrent entre les Sonrhaïs, et les Berbères dirigés par le chef Za e … Wikipédia en Français
Empire songhai — Empire songhaï Carte de l empire songhai L Empire songhaï, des Sonrhaïs, fut fondé à Koukia au VIIe siècle, suite aux métissages qui s effectuèrent entre les Sonrhaïs, et les Berbères dirigés par le chef Za e … Wikipédia en Français
Empire de Gao — Empire songhaï Carte de l empire songhai L Empire songhaï, des Sonrhaïs, fut fondé à Koukia au VIIe siècle, suite aux métissages qui s effectuèrent entre les Sonrhaïs, et les Berbères dirigés par le chef Za e … Wikipédia en Français