- Somoza family
Family that maintained political control of Nicaragua for more than 40 years.The dynasty's founder, Anastasio Somoza García (1896–1956), became head of Nicaragua's army in 1933 and, after deposing the elected president in 1936, ruled the country with a firm and grasping hand until he was assassinated. He was succeeded by his elder son, Luis Somoza Debayle (1922–67), and later by his younger son, Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1925–80), whose corrupt and brutal rule (1963–79) led to his overthrow by the Sandinistas. Somoza looted Nicaragua before fleeing the country; he was assassinated in Paraguay.
* * *▪ Nicaraguan familyfamily that maintained political control of Nicaragua for 44 years.The founder of the dynasty, Anastasio Somoza García (Somoza, Anastasio) (b. Feb. 1, 1896, San Marcos, Nicaragua—d. Sept. 29, 1956, Ancón, Panama Canal Zone [now Panama]), was the son of a wealthy coffee planter and was educated in Nicaragua and the United States. By marrying the daughter of a prominent Nicaraguan family, he ensured himself a secure political career. He rose quickly through the political ranks to become head of Nicaragua's army, the National Guard, in 1933. With the army at his disposal, he three years later deposed the elected president, Juan Bautista Sacasa (Sacasa, Juan Bautista); Somoza assumed the office on Jan. 1, 1937. Although he was officially not president from 1947 to 1950, his position as commander in chief guaranteed his continuous, firm rule; his authority was again made official by his election to a presidential term beginning in 1951.Somoza's administration fostered reforms and made Nicaragua less dependent on banana income. At the same time, however, Somoza amassed a considerable personal fortune, exiled most of his political opponents, and took over the ownership of large areas of land and many businesses.Following the assassination of Somoza, the presidency passed to his elder son, Luis Somoza Debayle (Somoza Debayle, Luis) (b. Nov. 18, 1922, León, Nicaragua—d. April 13, 1967, Managua). He won election to his own term of office (1957–63), during which he extended the family's business interests and, by most accounts, ruled more gently than had his father. After he refused to run for a second term, the presidency was held until 1967 by politicians favourable to the Somoza family.His younger brother, Anastasio Somoza Debayle (Somoza Debayle, Anastasio) (b. Dec. 5, 1925, León, Nicaragua—d. Sept. 17, 1980, Asunción, Paraguay), then won the presidency in a general election. He ruled aggressively in the manner of his father, and he continued to expand the family's fortune. He relinquished his office in 1972 but in 1974 returned to the presidency under a new constitution that permitted him to rule until 1981. Violent insurrection against the alleged oppression of Somoza's rule, as well as foreign accusations of violations of human rights, led to his resignation in July 1979, and he was assassinated while in exile.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Somoza family — The Somoza family was an influential political dynasty in Nicaragua. Their influence exceeded their combined 43 years in the presidency, as they were the power behind the other presidents of the time through their control of the National Guard.… … Wikipedia
Somoza Debayle, Anastasio — ▪ president of Nicaragua byname Tachito Somoza born Dec. 5, 1925, León, Nicaragua died Sept. 17, 1980, Asunción, Paraguay third member of the Somoza dynasty to be president of Nicaragua (1967–79), who was also commander in chief of the… … Universalium
family — /fam euh lee, fam lee/, n., pl. families, adj. n. 1. parents and their children, considered as a group, whether dwelling together or not. 2. the children of one person or one couple collectively: We want a large family. 3. the spouse and children … Universalium
Somoza, Anastasio — ▪ president of Nicaragua in full Anastasio Somoza García , byname Tacho born Feb. 1, 1896, San Marcos, Nicaragua died Sept. 29, 1956, Ancón, Panama Canal Zone soldier politician who was dictator of Nicaragua for 20 years. Preferring the … Universalium
Family dictatorship — A family dictatorship, in political science terms a personalistic regime, is a form of dictatorship that operates much like an absolute monarchy, yet occurs in a nominally republican state. That is to say, the key leader is a president or prime… … Wikipedia
Somoza Debayle, Luis — ▪ president of Nicaragua born Nov. 18, 1922 died April 13, 1967, Managua, Nicaragua president of Nicaragua (1956–63), successor to his father, Anastasio Somoza Debayle (Somoza Debayle, Anastasio), who had been assassinated. Luis Somoza also … Universalium
Anastasio Somoza Debayle — Hope Portocarrero and Anastasio Somoza President of Nicaragua In office 1 December … Wikipedia
Anastasio Somoza García — Somoza (left) Perón President of Nicaragua In office 1 January 1937 – 1 May 1947 … Wikipedia
Lillian Somoza Debayle — Lillian Ada de la Cruz Somoza Debayle. Conocida entre su familia como Lilly. (n. 3 de mayo de 1921, León, Nicaragua m. 14 de mayo del 2003, Washington DC, Estados Unidos). Hija de Anastasio Somoza García y Salvadora Debayle de Somoza, esposa de… … Wikipedia Español
Luis Somoza Debayle — (November 18, 1922 ndash; April 13, 1967) was the fortieth president of Nicaragua from 1956 ndash;1963, but was effectively dictator of the country from 1956 until his death. He was born in León.Following the assassination of his father,… … Wikipedia