- Sibelius, Jean
orig. Johan Julius Christian Sibeliusborn Dec. 8, 1865, Hämeenlinna, Fin.died Sept. 20, 1957, JärvenpääFinnish composer.He played violin and composed as a child, and later he studied composition with Karl Goldmark (1830–1915). After initially concentrating on chamber music, he rapidly developed into an orchestral composer. He became involved with the movement for national independence from Russia, and his nationalism resulted in works based on Finnish folklore, such as Kullervo (1892), the Karelia suite (1893), Legends from the Kalevala (1893), and Finlandia (1900). His major achievements were his seven symphonies (1899–1924), the Violin Concerto in D Minor (1903), and Tapiola (1926). His works, marked by a sweeping but melancholy Romanticism, achieved international popularity. He wrote nothing in his last 30 years.
* * *▪ Finnish composeroriginal name Johan Julius Christian Sibeliusborn Dec. 8, 1865, Hämeenlinna, Fin.died Sept. 20, 1957, JärvenpääFinnish composer, the most noted symphonic composer of Scandinavia.Sibelius studied at the Finnish Normal School, the first Finnish-speaking school in Russian-held Finland, where he came into contact with Finnish literature and in particular with the Kalevala, the mythological epic of Finland, which remained for him a constant source of inspiration. (Many of his symphonic poems, such as Pohjola's Daughter  and Luonnotar , drew on this source.) Although intended for a legal career, he soon abandoned his law studies at Helsinki, devoting himself entirely to music. At first he planned to become a violinist. Under the guidance of Martin Wegelius he composed much chamber and instrumental music. He adopted the name Jean, which he used throughout his professional career in preference to his baptismal names. In his mid-20s he left Finland to continue his studies in Berlin and Vienna, where his teachers included the composers Robert Fuchs and Karl Goldmark.On his return to Finland a performance of his first large-scale orchestral work, the Kullervo Symphony (1892), created something of a sensation. This and succeeding works, En Saga (1892), the Karelia music, and the Four Legends, established him as Finland's leading composer. The third of the four symphonic poems in Four Legends is the well-known The Swan of Tuonela (1893). In 1897, before the appearance of his Symphony No. 1 in E Minor (1899), the Finnish Senate voted Sibelius a small life pension in recognition of his genius. His tone poem Finlandia was written in 1899 and revised in 1900. Sibelius' compositions of the 1890s are those of a nationalist composer working in the Romantic tradition.In the first decade of the 20th century Sibelius' fame penetrated the European continent. The pianist-composer Ferruccio Busoni (Busoni, Ferruccio), whose friendship he had made in Helsinki as a student, conducted his Symphony No. 2 in D Major (1901) in Berlin, and the British composer Granville Bantock commissioned his Symphony No. 3 in C Major (1907). With this work Sibelius turned his back on the national romanticism of the second symphony and the Violin Concerto in D Minor (1903) and moved toward the more searching and uncompromising mode of utterance of En Saga and the Symphony No. 4 in A Minor (1911). After World War I he published his greatest works, the last three symphonies (No. 5 in E-flat Major, No. 6 in D Minor, and No. 7 in C Major) and Tapiola (1925) but then lapsed into the long silence of his last years. Rumours of an eighth symphony (promised for performance in the early 1930s) and even a ninth symphony were unfounded. No manuscripts survived his death.The 1930s saw a vogue for Sibelius prompted by such writers as Cecil Gray and Constant Lambert in England and Olin Downes in the United States. Despite a reaction against this vogue in the following generation, Sibelius retained his firm hold over the musical public. Although his inspiration is intimately connected with the Scandinavian landscape, it is not primarily as a nature poet that he is remembered. His achievement both in the symphonic poems and the seven symphonies lies principally in his remarkable mastery of form. The first movement of the third symphony has the clarity of construction of a Haydn or Mozart first movement, yet its organic unity and architecture even surpasses its models. It was in this capacity for organic growth that the secret of his genius lay.Additional ReadingRobert Layton, Sibelius, 2nd ed. (1978, reissued 1983), contains a short biography and a detailed analysis of Sibelius' music. Erik Tawaststjerna, Sibelius (1976– ), is based on hitherto unpublished material, correspondence, and diaries; it is likely to remain the definitive study of the composer.
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Sibelius, Jean — ► (1865 1957) Compositor finlandés. Su obra comprende un total de 116 números. El poema sinfónico Finlandia es su obra más celebrada, junto con La doncella de la torre (ópera), etc. Su obra instrumental comprende Concierto para violín y el… … Enciclopedia Universal
Sibelius,Jean — Si·be·li·us (sĭ bāʹlē əs, bālʹyəs), Jean. 1865 1957. Finnish composer whose romantic nationalistic works include the symphonic poems Finlandia (1899) and Valse Triste (1903). * * * … Universalium
Sibelius — Sibelius, Jean … Enciclopedia Universal
Jean Sibelius — ca. 1890 Jean Sibelius, 1913 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Jean Sibélius — Jean Sibelius Jean Sibelius Jean Sibelius vers 1889 1890 Naissance 8 décembre 1865 Hämeenlinna … Wikipédia en Français
SIBELIUS — Ayant suscité les appréciations les plus contradictoires chez les critiques, tenu longtemps dans un purgatoire d’où seuls Anglais et Américains l’avaient fait sortir (ce qui ajoutait à la méfiance des Allemands et des Latins puisque le bon goût… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Sibelius — Sibelius, Jean, eigentlich Johan Julius Christian Sibelius, finnischer Komponist, * Hämeenlinna 8. 12. 1865, ✝ Järvenpää (Provinz Uusimaa) 20. 9. 1957; studierte in Helsinki (u. a. bei Martin Wegelius, * 1846, ✝ 1906), Berlin und Wien (bei R.… … Universal-Lexikon
Sibelĭus — Sibelĭus, Jean, finnländischer nationaler Komponist, geb. 8. Dez. 1865 in Tawastehus, erhielt seine Ausbildung in Helsingfors, Berlin und Wien und machte Aufsehen durch symphonische Dichtungen und andre Orchesterwerke sowie durch Chorwerke mit… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Jean Sibelius — This article is about the Finnish composer. For other uses, see Sibelius (disambiguation). Portrait of Jean Sibelius from 1913 Jean Sibelius ( pronunciation … Wikipedia
Jean Sibelius — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Sibelius. Jean Sibelius … Wikipédia en Français