Sherman, John

Sherman, John
born May 10, 1823, Lancaster, Ohio, U.S.
died Oct. 22, 1900, Washington, D.C.

U.S. politician.

A brother of William T. Sherman, he served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1855–61). A fiscal expert, he helped establish the national banking system (1863) and supported legislation that returned the U.S. to the gold standard. He served as U.S. secretary of the treasury (1877–81). In the U.S. Senate (1861–77, 1881–97), he proposed the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890). He later served briefly as secretary of state (1897–98), resigning the day Congress declared war against Spain.

John Sherman

By courtesy of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

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▪ United States statesman

born May 10, 1823, Lancaster, Ohio, U.S.
died Oct. 22, 1900, Washington, D.C.
 American statesman, financial administrator, and author of major legislation concerning currency and regulation of commerce.

      A younger brother of General William Tecumseh Sherman, he practiced law in Ohio before entering politics. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1855–61) and in the U.S. Senate (1861–77, 1881–97) and was secretary of the Treasury under President Rutherford B. Hayes (1877–81) and secretary of state under President William McKinley (1897–98).

      Early in his congressional career Sherman gained a reputation as a fiscal expert. He was chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee (1859–61) and of the Senate Finance Committee (1867–77). He consistently preferred conservative financial policies but was often forced to balance his own convictions with the preferences of his constituents, many of whom favoured inflationary measures. He played a leading role in the establishment of the national banking system (1863), in the enactment of the bill (1873) that discontinued the coinage of silver dollars (denounced by critics as the “the crime of '73”) and of the Specie Payment Resumption Act (Resumption Act of 1875) (1875), which provided for the redemption of Civil War greenbacks in gold. It was thus largely through his efforts that the United States returned to the gold standard. During the administration of President Benjamin Harrison, the Antitrust Act (Sherman Antitrust Act) of 1890 and the Silver Purchase Act of the same year bore his name, but both represented compromises that had only his qualified approval.

      Sherman's name was presented as a presidential consideration to three Republican national conventions (1880, 1884, and 1888). His lack of popular appeal, however, and his middle-of-the-road course on monetary policies, which suited neither the inflationist West nor the conservative East, prevented his winning the nomination.

      In 1897 President William McKinley appointed Sherman secretary of state, but partly for reasons of health and partly for reasons of principle, he resigned on April 25, 1898, the day Congress declared war against Spain.

Additional Reading
W.S. Kerr, John Sherman, His Life and Public Services, 2 vol. (1908).

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

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  • Sherman,John — Sher·man (shûrʹmən), John. 1823 1900. American politician. A U.S. senator from Ohio (1861 1877 and 1881 1897), he wrote and sponsored the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890). * * * …   Universalium

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  • Sherman Antitrust Act — an act of Congress (1890) prohibiting any contract, conspiracy, or combination of business interests in restraint of foreign or interstate trade. Cf. Clayton Antitrust Act. [named after John SHERMAN, who introduced the bill in Congress] * * *… …   Universalium

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