- Shapley, Harlow
born Nov. 2, 1885, Nashville, Mo., U.S.died Oct. 20, 1972, Boulder, Colo.U.S. astronomer.In 1911 he began a determination of the dimensions of the components of numerous binary stars from measurements of their light variation when they eclipse one another; he also proposed (correctly) that Cepheid variables are pulsating variable stars, not eclipsing binaries (see eclipsing variable star). In 1914 he joined the staff of Mount Wilson Observatory. His study of the distribution of globular clusters in the Milky Way Galaxy led him to deduce that the Sun, previously thought to lie near the centre of the Galaxy, was 50,000 light-years from the centre (now estimated at about 27,000), leading to the first realistic estimate of the Galaxy's size. Shapley also studied neighbouring galaxies, especially the Magellanic Clouds, and found that galaxies tend to occur in clusters.
* * *▪ American astronomerborn Nov. 2, 1885, Nashville, Mo., U.S.died Oct. 20, 1972, Boulder, Colo.American astronomer who deduced that the Sun lies near the central plane of the Galaxy some 30,000 light-years away from the centre.In 1911 Shapley, working with results given by Henry N. Russell, began finding the dimensions of stars in a number of binary systems from measurements of their light variation when they eclipse one another. These methods remained the standard procedure for more than 30 years. Shapley also showed that Cepheid variables (Cepheid variable) cannot be star pairs that eclipse each other. He was the first to propose that they are pulsating stars.Shapley joined the staff of the Mount Wilson Observatory, Pasadena, Calif., in 1914. Employing the 1.5-metre (60-inch) reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson, he made a study of the distribution of the globular clusters (globular cluster) in the Galaxy; (Milky Way Galaxy) these clusters are immense, densely packed groups of stars, some containing as many as 1,000,000 members. He found that of the 100 clusters known at the time, one-third lay within the boundary of the constellation Sagittarius. Utilizing the newly developed concept that variable stars accurately reveal their distance by their period of variation and apparent brightness, he found that the clusters were distributed roughly in a sphere whose centre lay in Sagittarius. Since the clusters assumed a spherical arrangement, it was logical to conclude that they would cluster around the centre of the Galaxy; from this conclusion and his other distance data Shapley deduced that the Sun lies at a distance of 50,000 light-years from the centre of the Galaxy; the number was later corrected to 30,000 light-years. Before Shapley, the Sun was believed to lie near the centre of the Galaxy. His work, which led to the first realistic estimate for the actual size of the Galaxy, thus was a milestone in galactic astronomy.In addition to his studies of the Galaxy, Shapley studied the neighbouring galaxies, especially the Magellanic Clouds, and found that galaxies tend to occur in clusters, which he called metagalaxies. Shapley became professor of astronomy at Harvard University, later director of Harvard College Observatory (1921–52), and was made director emeritus and Paine Professor of Astronomy at Harvard in 1952. His works include Star Clusters (1930), Flights from Chaos (1930), Galaxies (1943), The Inner Metagalaxy (1957), and Of Stars and Men . . . (1958).
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Shapley , Harlow — (1885–1972) American astronomer Shapley came from a farming background in Nashville, Missouri. He began his career as a crime reporter on the Daily Sun of a small Kansas town when he was 16. He entered the University of Missouri in 1907 intending … Scientists
Shapley, Harlow — ► (1885 1972) Astrónomo estadounidense. Determinó la forma y dimensiones de la Vía Láctea. * * * (2 nov. 1885, Nashville, Mo., EE.UU.–20 oct. 1972, Boulder, Col.). Astrónomo estadounidense. En 1911 comenzó un trabajo para determinar las… … Enciclopedia Universal
Shapley,Harlow — Shap·ley (shăpʹlē), Harlow. 1885 1972. American astronomer noted for his work in cosmology, spectroscopy, and photometry. * * * … Universalium
Shapley — Shapley, Harlow … Enciclopedia Universal
Harlow Shapley — Nacimiento 2 de noviembre de 1885 Nashville, Missouri, EE. UU. Fallecimiento … Wikipedia Español
Shapley-Sawyer Concentration Class — Die Shapley Sawyer Konzentrationsklassen bilden ein qualitatives Klassifizierungssystem, mit dem Harlow Shapley und seine Doktorandin Helen Sawyer Hogg ab 1927 Kugelsternhaufen nach ihrer scheinbaren Konzentration auf photographischen Aufnahmen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Shapley-Sawyer Konzentrationklasse — Die Shapley Sawyer Konzentrationsklassen bilden ein qualitatives Klassifizierungssystem, mit dem Harlow Shapley und seine Doktorandin Helen Sawyer Hogg ab 1927 Kugelsternhaufen nach ihrer scheinbaren Konzentration auf photographischen Aufnahmen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Harlow Shapley — (* 2. November 1885 in Nashville, Tennessee; † 20. Oktober 1972 in Boulder, Colorado) war ein US amerikanischer Astronom. 1913 promovierte Harlow Shapley an der Princeton University bei Henry Norris Russell mit der Arbeit The Orbits of Eighty… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Harlow Shapley — Naissance 2 novembre 1885 Nashville (USA) Décès 20 octobre 1972 (à 86 ans) Boulder (USA) Nationalité … Wikipédia en Français
Shapley — ist der Name von Harlow Shapley (1885–1972), US amerikanischer Astronom Lloyd S. Shapley (* 1923), US amerikanischer Ökonom und Mathematiker Siehe auch: Shapley Ames Katalog, 1932 veröffentlichter Galaxienkatalog mit 1249 Objekten heller als… … Deutsch Wikipedia