Sarraute, Nathalie


Sarraute, Nathalie
orig. Nathalie Ilyanova Tcherniak

born July 18, 1900, Ivanova, Russia
died Oct. 19, 1999, Paris, France

French novelist and essayist.

She practiced law until с 1940, when she became a full-time writer. Tropismes (1939), a collection of sketches, introduced her idea of tropisms, the "things that are not said and the movements that cross our consciousness very rapidly." An early practitioner and leading theorist of the nouveau roman ("new novel"), the French antinovel, she discarded conventions of plot, chronology, characterization, and point of view. Her novels
including Portrait of a Man Unknown (1948), Martereau (1953), Le planétarium (1959), and Here (1997)
and her plays focus on the unspoken "subconversations" in human interactions.

* * *

▪ 2000

      French novelist and essayist (b. July 18, 1900, Ivanovo, Russia—d. Oct. 19, 1999, Paris, France), was at the forefront of the literary movement christened nouveau roman. The title of her first novel, Tropismes (1939 and 1957; Tropisms, 1963), was a term she borrowed from botany that referred to the movements observed in plants in response to stimuli. She used “tropisms” to relate the small but intense feelings within the consciousness—a general uneasiness or perhaps a momentary sensation of sadness or euphoria—in response to intangible outside elements. Her second novel, Portrait d'un inconnu (1948; Portrait of a Man Unknown,1958), boasted a preface written by Jean-Paul Sartre, who dubbed the work an antinovel owing to its lack of the essential ingredients of the conventional novel—plot and description of full-bodied characters. Instead, her works relied on internal dialogues that included conversations that were secondary to the silences, gestures, or repetitions that occurred. Many of her later novels were completely devoid of characters. She was born Natalya Ilyevna Chernyak. Following her parents' divorce, when she was two, she lived with her mother in Geneva, Paris, and St. Petersburg before settling permanently in Paris. After attending the University of Oxford (1921), Sarraute graduated (1925) with a licence from the University of Paris, Sorbonne. Before becoming a full-time writer, she was a member (1926–41) of the French bar. In 1956 she exploded onto the literary scene with her essay L'Ère du soupƈon (1956; The Age of Suspicion, 1963), in which she detailed her views on the traditional novel, and became one of the leading exponents, along with Alain Robbe-Grillet, Claude Simon, and Robert Pinget, of the nouveau roman school. Other works include Elle est là (1978), L'Usage de la parole (1980), and an autobiography, Enfance (1983).

* * *

▪ French author
née  Nathalie Ilyanova Tcherniak 
born July 18, 1900, Ivanova, Russia
died Oct. 19, 1999, Paris, France

      French novelist and essayist, one of the earliest practitioners and a leading theorist of the nouveau roman, the French post-World War II “new novel,” or “antinovel (New Novel),” a phrase applied by Jean-Paul Sartre (Sartre, Jean-Paul) to Sarraute's Portrait d'un inconnu (1947; Portrait of a Man Unknown). She was one of the most widely translated and discussed of the nouveau roman school. Her works reject the “admirable implements” forged by past realistic novelists such as Honoré de Balzac (Balzac, Honoré de), particularly the use of biographical description to create full-bodied characters.

      Sarraute was two years old when her parents were divorced, and her mother took her to Geneva and then to Paris. Except for brief visits to Russia and an extended stay in St. Petersburg (1908–10), she lived in Paris thereafter, and French was her first language. She attended the University of Oxford (1921) and graduated with a licence from the University of Paris, Sorbonne (1925); she was a member of the French bar, 1926–41, until she became a full-time writer.

      Sarraute challenged the mystique of the traditional novel in her theoretical essay L'Ère du soupçon (1956; The Age of Suspicion) and experimented with technique in Tropismes (1939 and 1957; Tropisms), her first collection of sketches. In this work she introduced the notion of “tropisms,” a term borrowed from botany and meaning elemental impulses alternately attracted and repelled by each other. Sarraute described these impulses as imperceptible motions at the origin of our attitudes and actions, and forming the substrata of such feelings as envy, love, hate, or hope. Within this aggregate of minute stirrings, Sarraute portrays a tyrannical father pushing his aging daughter into marriage (Portrait d'un inconnu), an elderly lady enamoured of furniture (Le Planétarium, 1959; The Planetarium), and a literary coterie reacting to a newly published novel (Les Fruits d'or, 1963; The Golden Fruits). Later works include Elle est là (1978; “She Is There”), L'Usage de la parole (1980; “The Usage of Speech”), and an autobiography, Enfance (1983; Childhood).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Sarraute, Nathalie — ► (1900 99) Novelista francesa. Está vinculada al nouveau roman. Obras: Los frutos de oro (1961) y Entre la vida y la muerte (1968), entre otras …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Sarraute — Sarraute, Nathalie …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Sarraute — Nathalie Sarraute (* 18. Juli 1900 in Iwanowo, Russland; † 19. Oktober 1999 in Paris) war eine französische Schriftstellerin mit russischen Wurzeln. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Kindheit und jüngere Jahre 2 Die Anfänge als Autorin …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nathalie Sarraute — en 1983 Nom de naissance Natalyia (Natacha) Tcherniak Autres noms Tac …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sarraute — Nathalie Sarraute Nathalie Sarraute, née Natalyia (Natacha) Tcherniak à Ivanovo, en Russie, le 18 juillet 1900, et décédée à Paris le 19 octobre 1999, est une écrivaine française d origine russe. Elle est la mère de Claude… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nathalie Sarraute — (* 18. Juli 1900 in Iwanowo; † 19. Oktober 1999 in Paris) war eine französische Schriftstellerin mit russischen Wurzeln …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • SARRAUTE (N.) — Si l’on peut faire remonter au recueil de L’Ère du soupçon , paru en 1956, le rayonnement de l’œuvre de Nathalie Sarraute, l’une des plus neuves et des plus marquantes de notre époque, c’est parce que s’y trouve alors abordée pour la première… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Nathalie Sarraute — Nathalie Sarraute, cuyo nombre real era Natacha Tcherniak (Ivánovo, Rusia 19 de julio de 1900 – París, 19 de octubre de 1999), fue una escritora francesa de origen ruso …   Wikipedia Español

  • Nathalie Sarraute — French literature By category French literary history Medieval 16th century  …   Wikipedia

  • SARRAUTE (Cherniak), NATHALIE — (1900–1999), French novelist. Born in Ivanova Vosnesensk, Russia, into an assimilated Jewish family, Nathalie Sarraute was taken to France at the age of two. She practiced as a lawyer until the Nazi occupation in 1940, when she joined the French… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.