Saratoga, Battles of


Saratoga, Battles of
(1777) Engagements in the American Revolution.

British troops under John Burgoyne marched from Canada to join with other British troops, and, after camping at Saratoga, N.Y., engaged the Continental Army under Horatio Gates at the First Battle of Saratoga (September 19), also known as the Battle of Freeman's Farm. Failing to break the American lines, the British faced a counterattack led by Benedict Arnold at the Second Battle of Saratoga (October 7), or the Battle of Bemis Heights. With his forces reduced to 5,000 men, Burgoyne began to retreat, but Gates, with 20,000 men, surrounded the British at Saratoga and forced their surrender (October 17). The American victory induced the French to offer open recognition and military aid.

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▪ United States history
 in the American Revolution, closely related engagements in the fall of 1777 that are often called the turning point of the war in favour of the Americans. The failure of the American invasion of Canada in 1775–76 had left a large surplus of British troops along the St. Lawrence River. In 1777 these troops were to move south and join forces with General Sir William Howe (Howe, William Howe, 5th Viscount)'s troops along the Hudson River.

      Leading a force of about 8,000 British troops southward, General John Burgoyne (Burgoyne, John) forced the surrender of Fort Ticonderoga (July 6) and Fort Edward on the upper Hudson (July 31). He left nearly 1,000 men behind to garrison Fort Ticonderoga. Having collected 30 days' rations, Burgoyne crossed the Hudson and encamped near Saratoga, New York. General Horatio Gates (Gates, Horatio), the American commander, was camped four miles away with 12,000 men and was receiving daily reinforcements.

      On September 19 Burgoyne's army moved south and engaged the Continental forces at the Battle of Freeman's Farm, or the First Battle of Saratoga. Burgoyne failed to pierce Gates's lines, however, and thus open a way to Albany. On October 7 he led 1,500 of his men out on reconnaissance but met with a fierce American counterattack under General Benedict Arnold (Arnold, Benedict). This engagement was called the Battle of Bemis Heights, also known as the Second Battle of Freeman's Farm or the Second Battle of Saratoga. By now Burgoyne's army had been reduced to about 5,000 effective troops, and his supplies were running low. On October 8 Burgoyne began his retreat, but Gates, who had 20,000 men by now, surrounded him at Saratoga. On October 17 Burgoyne surrendered his troops under the Convention of Saratoga, which provided for the return of his men to Great Britain on condition that they would not serve again in North America during the war.

      The American victory in the Battles of Saratoga helped to induce the French to recognize American independence and to give open military assistance, thus marking a turning point in the uprising and making possible its ultimate success.

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