- Río de la Plata, Viceroyalty of the
Last of the four viceroyalties that Spain created to govern its New World colonies.Established in 1776 as means of decentralizing rule in the Spanish empire, it controlled an area previously administered by the Viceroyalty of Peru and included what is now Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Successive viceroys defended the territory against encroachment by Portugal and Britain and helped Buenos Aires become a flourishing outpost of the Spanish empire. Salted meat from the cattle ranches of the interior, exported to meet the demand for cheap food for slaves, brought unprecedented wealth to the colony. In 1810 the Creoles created a provisional junta and sent the viceroy into exile. See also New Granada;New Spain.
* * *▪ historical area, South AmericaSpanish Virreinato del Río de la Plata,the final of the four viceroyalties that Spain created during its colonization of Central and South America. Including the territory now comprising Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia, the new viceroyalty (established in 1776) controlled an area previously under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru. The decision to create a fourth viceroyalty was a result both of King Charles III's (Charles III) desire to decentralize the rule of his Spanish-American empire and of a recognition that the area south of Brazil required greater military defenses in view of Portuguese encroachments along the northern shore of the Río de la Plata. Spain also wanted to curtail contraband trade between Portuguese Brazil and Buenos Aires. In addition, by the 1760s the British had made clear their intention to take the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. Although Spain pressured the British out of temporary possession of the islands, the need for greater military control of the South Atlantic region had become apparent.In 1776 the first viceroy of Río de la Plata—Pedro de Cevallos—arrived in Montevideo with a large force of men and ships. Cevallos pushed the Portuguese back and organized a new government in Buenos Aires before being supplanted by another viceroy just a few months after taking office. The viceroys following Cevallos—Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo (1778–84), Nicolás Francisco Cristóbal del Campo, marqués de Loreto (1784–89), and Nicolás de Arredondo (1789–95)—administered the region well, as did four others who served briefly between 1795 and 1804. During these years the viceroyalty in general and the city of Buenos Aires in particular became a flourishing outpost of the Spanish empire. Silver from the Potosí mines, previously exported via Peru, was sent through Buenos Aires. An enormous demand grew for salted meat—especially in Cuba and Brazil and other areas where slaves were fed cheaply—spurring an era of unprecedented prosperity for the cattle industry of the Pampas. Hides and other cattle products also brought wealth to Buenos Aires.In 1804 Rafael, marqués de Sobremonte, assumed the viceregal post. Twice (1806, 1807) during his term the British invaded, and twice he fled. The Creole population of Buenos Aires successfully fought off the invaders on both occasions, in the process gaining confidence in their ability to govern and defend themselves. In 1810 the Creoles created a provisional junta and exiled the viceroy to the Canary Islands, thereby ending the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and launching the independence movement.
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Río de la Plata — This page is about the South American estuary. For the river in Puerto Rico, see Rio de la Plata (Puerto Rico). For other uses, see Río de la Plata (disambiguation). Coordinates: 35°40′S 55°47′W / … Wikipedia
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata — The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the last and most shortlived viceroyalty created by Spain in 1776. (The Spanish name, Virreinato del Río de la Plata , translates literally to Viceroyalty of the River of Silver, although some sources… … Wikipedia
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United Provinces of the Río de la Plata — (United Provinces of South America) Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata (Provincias Unidas en Sud América) ← … Wikipedia
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Governorate of the Río de la Plata — The Governorate of the Río de la Plata (Spanish: Gobernación del Río de la Plata ) was a colonial administration created in 1549 by Spain in the area around the Río de la Plata. It was at first simply a renaming of the Governorate of New… … Wikipedia
List of Governors in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata — Governors in the various Provinces of the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata.In addition to governors, the following list (under construction) intends to give an overview of colonial units of that echelon. It also includes some offices of similar… … Wikipedia
Vizekönigkreich Río de la Plata — Territoriale Aufteilung des Vizekönigreiches vom Río de la Plata im Jahr 1783 Das Vizekönigreich des Río de la Plata war das südlichste der spanischen Vizekönigreiche in Lateinamerika. Es wurde 1776 vom Vizekönigreich Peru getrennt. Hauptstadt… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Liste der Vizekönige vom Río de la Plata — Das Vizekönigreich des Río de la Plata wurde 1776 vom Vizekönigreich Peru getrennt und hatte bis zur Unabhängigkeitserklärung der Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata am 25. Mai 1810 (Mai Revolution) Bestand. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Liste der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Liste der Vizekönige des Río de la Plata — Das Vizekönigreich des Río de la Plata wurde 1776 vom Vizekönigreich Peru getrennt und hatte bis zur Unabhängigkeitserklärung der Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata am 25. Mai 1810 (Mai Revolution) Bestand. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Liste der… … Deutsch Wikipedia