Reforma, La


Reforma, La
(1854–76) Liberal political and social revolution in Mexico under the principal leadership of Benito Juárez.

It began with the removal of the dictator Antonio Santa Anna and went on to abolish special privileges of the church and the military, confiscate church lands, suppress monasteries, institute civil marriage, establish a liberal federalist constitution, and place the army under civilian control. Confiscated church property was to be allocated to the landless, but this policy proved to be La Reforma's outstanding failure; in fact, the number and wealth of large landholders increased. La Reforma came to a close when Porfirio Díaz seized power in 1876.

* * *

▪ Mexican history
      (Spanish: The Reform), liberal political and social revolution in Mexico between 1854 and 1876 under the principal leadership of Benito Juárez (Juárez, Benito).

      La Reforma period began with the issuance in 1854 of the Plan de Ayutla, a liberal pronouncement calling for the removal of the dictator Antonio López de Santa Anna. After Santa Anna's fall in 1855, Juárez and the liberals enacted the Ley Juárez, abolishing the fueros (special privileges of the clergy and the military); the Ley Lerdo (1856) ordered the sale of all church lands not used for specifically religious purposes. In 1857 the congress, in which the moderate liberals held sway, drafted a liberal, federalist constitution; it ended special jurisdiction for the clergy, limited the power of the church, placed the army under ultimate civilian control, abolished hereditary titles and imprisonment for debt, and gave Mexican citizens their first genuine bill of rights.

      In 1858 the conservative clergy, military, and landowners precipitated a civil war, which was won by the liberal government by 1860. By the Laws of La Reforma (1859) church property, except for places of worship, was to be confiscated without compensation, monasteries were suppressed, cemeteries nationalized, and civil marriage instituted. Confiscated church property was to be allotted in small parcels to the landless; the land policy of La Reforma was its outstanding failure, however, because by the end of the period the number and wealth of large landholders increased, while the condition of impoverished, landless peasants worsened.

      In 1862 Juárez' government was attacked from without: Napoleon III sought to establish French power in Mexico by siding with Mexican conservatives to restore the old order. The brief reign of Napoleon's protegé, the Habsburg emperor Maximilian, ended when the French withdrew under pressure from Mexican patriots and the United States. Juárez was reelected president in 1867 and, until he died in 1872, tried to implement his program in the face of insufficient revenues and the discontent of many liberals who opposed his increasingly authoritarian methods, including his unconstitutional reelection to the presidency in 1871. His successor, Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, faced mounting conservative opposition, which culminated in the military coup of Porfirio Díaz in 1876.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Reforma — puede referirse a: Propuesta, proyecto o efectiva realización de una innovación o mejora. Contenido 1 Historia 1.1 Movimientos religiosos 1.2 Roma 1.3 México …   Wikipedia Español

  • reforma — REFORMÁ, reformez, vb. I. 1. tranz. A schimba (în bine); a înnoi, a primeni o stare de lucruri, o concepţie etc.; a face o reformă (1). 2. tranz. A scoate din uz o unealtă, o maşină etc.; a da la reformă (3) datorită degradării totale sau… …   Dicționar Român

  • reformă — REFÓRMĂ, reforme, s.f. 1. Transformare politică, economică, socială, culturală, cu caracter limitat sau de structură, a unei stări de lucruri, pentru a obţine o ameliorare sau un progres; schimbare în sânul unei societăţi (care nu modifică… …   Dicționar Român

  • reforma — sustantivo femenino 1. Acción y resultado de cambiar una cosa para mejorarla: Las casas viejas necesitan reformas. Nadie confía en la reforma de su comportamiento. liquidación* por reforma. 2. Área: historia Movimiento religioso e intelectual del …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • reforma — rèfōrma ž <G mn ī> DEFINICIJA 1. a. čin ponovnog stvaranja b. čin reformiranja 2. izmjena, preinačenje neke strukture radi poboljšanja ili prilagođivanja njezinih funkcija bez razgrađivanja njezinih osnova [agrarna reforma; privredna… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • reforma — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. ż Ia, CMc. reformamie {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} zmiana, zwykle społeczno ekonomiczna lub polityczna, dokonana w jakimś systemie bez naruszenia podstaw istniejącego układu, ulepszenie czegoś : {{/stl 7}}{{stl 10}}Reforma… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • reforma — refòrma dkt. Valstýbės val̃dymo refòrma …   Bendrinės lietuvių kalbos žodyno antraštynas

  • refòrma — reforma, reformo, refourmo f. réforme; milit. Passar la refòrma : passer la réforme > « Eier as passa la reformo, avian degun per n ajuda… » V. Gelu …   Diccionari Personau e Evolutiu

  • reforma — 1. f. Acción y efecto de reformar o reformarse. 2. Aquello que se propone, proyecta o ejecuta como innovación o mejora en algo. 3. religión reformada. 4. Movimiento religioso que, iniciado en el siglo XVI, motivó la formación de las Iglesias… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • rèfōrma — ž 〈G mn ī〉 1. {{001f}}a. {{001f}}čin ponovnog stvaranja b. {{001f}}čin reformiranja 2. {{001f}}izmjena, preinačenje neke strukture radi poboljšanja ili prilagođivanja njezinih funkcija bez razgrađivanja njezinih osnova [agrarna ∼; privredna ∼;… …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

  • reforma — s. f. 1. Ato ou efeito de reformar. 2. Mudança operada tendo em vista um melhoramento. 3. Melhoramento introduzido numa regra muito moderada, numa ordem religiosa. 4. Nova organização ou modificação de uma organização existente. 5. Situação de um …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.