Prandtl, Ludwig


Prandtl, Ludwig
born Feb. 4, 1875, Freising, Ger.
died Aug. 15, 1953, Göttingen, W.Ger.

German physicist, considered the father of aerodynamics.

He taught at the University of Göttingen (1904–53). His 1904 discovery of the boundary layer at the surface of a body moving in air or water led to an understanding of skin friction drag and of the way streamlining (see streamline) reduces the drag of airplane wings and other moving bodies. His work on wing theory explained the process of airflow over airplane wings.

* * *

▪ German physicist

born Feb. 4, 1875, Freising, Ger.
died Aug. 15, 1953, Göttingen
 German physicist who is considered to be the father of aerodynamics.

      In 1901 Prandtl became professor of mechanics at the Technical Institute of Hannover, where he continued his earlier efforts to provide a sound theoretical basis for fluid mechanics. From 1904 to 1953, he served as professor of applied mechanics at the University of Göttingen, where he established a school of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics that achieved world renown. In 1925 he became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm (later the Max Planck) Institute for Fluid Mechanics. His discovery (1904) of the boundary layer, which adjoins the surface of a body moving in air or water, led to an understanding of skin friction drag and of the way in which streamlining reduces the drag of airplane wings and other moving bodies. His work on wing theory, which followed similar work by a British physicist, Frederick W. Lanchester (Lanchester, Frederick William), but was carried out independently, elucidated the process of airflow over airplane wings of finite span. That body of work is known as the Lanchester-Prandtl wing theory.

      Prandtl made decisive advances in boundary-layer and wing theories, and his work became the fundamental material of aerodynamics. He was an early pioneer in streamlining airships (airship), and his advocacy of monoplanes (monoplane) greatly advanced heavier-than-air aviation. He contributed the Prandtl-Glaubert rule for subsonic airflow to describe the compressibility effects of air at high speeds. In addition to his important advances in the theories of supersonic flow and turbulence, he made notable innovations in the design of wind tunnels and other aerodynamic equipment. He also devised a soap-film analogy for analyzing the torsion forces of structures with noncircular cross sections.

Tom D. Crouch
 

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Prandtl, Ludwig — ► (1875 1953) Físico e ingeniero alemán. Especialista en dinámica. Sus deducciones son de gran importancia para la construcción de barcos y aviones. * * * (4 feb. 1875, Freising, Alemania–15 ago. 1953, Gotinga, Alemania Occidental). Físico alemán …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Prandtl — Prandtl, Ludwig …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ludwig Prandtl — Portrait photographique de Ludwig Prandtl (1937). Naissance 4 février 1875 Freising ( …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ludwig Prandtl — Ludwig Prandtl. Ludwig Prandtl (Freising, 4 de febrero de 1875 – †Gotinga, 15 de agosto de 1953) fue un físico alemán. Realizó importantes trabajos pioneros en el campo de la aerodinámica, y durante la década de 1920 desarrolló la base… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ludwig — Ludwig, Emil Ludwig, Karl Friedrich Ludwig, Otto * * * (as used in expressions) Beck, Ludwig Beethoven, Ludwig van Boltzmann, Ludwig (Eduard) Erhard, Ludwig Feuerbach, Ludwig (Andreas) Fraenkel Conrat, Heinz L(udwig) Frege, (Friedrich Ludwig)… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ludwig Prandtl — Infobox Scientist name = Ludwig Prandtl |200px caption = Ludwig Prandtl birth date = birth date|1875|2|4|df=y birth place = Freising, Germany death date = death date and age|1953|8|15|1875|2|4|df=y death place = Göttingen, Germany residence =… …   Wikipedia

  • Ludwig Prandtl — Portraitaufnahme von Ludwig Prandtl 1937 Ludwig Prandtl 1904 mit einem …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Prandtl'sches Staurohr — Grundprinzip einer Prandtlsonde (Staurohr) an einem U Rohr Manometer Die Prandtlsonde (benannt nach Ludwig Prandtl) ist ein strömungstechnisches Messinstrument zur Bestimmung des Staudrucks. Es stellt eine Kombination aus Pitotrohr und statischer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ludwig — /lud wig, lood vig, wig/; Ger. /looht vikh, loohd /, n. 1. Emil /ay meel/, (Emil Cohn), 1881 1948, German biographer. 2. a male given name: from a Germanic word meaning famous warrior. * * * (as used in expressions) Beck Ludwig Beethoven Ludwig… …   Universalium

  • Ludwig Föppl — Karl Ludwig Föppl (* 27. Februar 1887 in Leipzig; † 13. Mai 1976 in München)[1] war ein deutscher Maschinenbauingenieur und Hochschullehrer. Im Ersten Weltkrieg arbeitete er als Kryptologe. Er war Sohn von August Föppl, einem deutscher Statiker… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.