- Poltava, Battle of
(June 1709) Decisive victory of Russia over Sweden in the Second Northern War.The battle was fought near Poltava, Ukr., between 80,000 Russian troops under Peter I the Great and Aleksandr Menshikov and 17,000 Swedish troops under Charles XII. Despite the lack of reinforcements for his depleted forces, Charles besieged Poltava in May 1709. The Russians set up a countersiege line and forced the Swedes to attack. Charles planned a daring charge through the Russian line, but he had been injured, and his commanders failed to execute the attack. The Russian counterattack killed or captured the entire Swedish army except for Charles and 1,500 followers. Sweden's defeat ended its status as a major power and marked the beginning of Russian supremacy in eastern Europe.
* * *▪ Europe (June 27 [July 8, New Style], 1709), the decisive victory of Peter I the Great of Russia over Charles XII of Sweden in the Great Northern War. The battle ended Sweden's status as a major power and marked the beginning of Russian supremacy in eastern Europe. It was fought north and west of Poltava, west of the Vorskla River, in the Ukraine, between 80,000 Russian troops under Peter the Great and the general Prince Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and 17,000 Swedes under Charles XII. The Swedish invasion of Russia had already failed the previous winter, with the loss of their major supply column to the Russians and their failure to receive expected reinforcements. Despite the severe shortages of men, artillery, and powder, Charles continued the war and besieged Poltava in May 1709. The Russians assembled their forces to raise the siege. They set up entrenchments (a countersiege) within a few hundred yards of the Swedish siege lines, thus forcing the Swedes to attack. Charles planned to charge past the Russian line of redoubts, without stopping to subdue them, and directly assault the main Russian defensive position. This called for extreme mobility and daring. But Charles himself lacked mobility because he had been injured a few days before, and his secondary commanders either lacked daring or failed to understand his plan. The Swedish attack faltered; the Russian counterattack, with 40,000 troops, killed or captured the entire Swedish army, except for Charles and 1,500 followers, who escaped south into Turkish territory.
* * *
См. также в других словарях:
battle — battle1 battler, n. /bat l/, n., v., battled, battling. n. 1. a hostile encounter or engagement between opposing military forces: the battle of Waterloo. 2. participation in such hostile encounters or engagements: wounds received in battle. 3. a… … Universalium
POLTAVA — POLTAVA, capital of Poltava district, Ukraine. Jews began to settle there at the close of the 18th century. In 1801 there were 18 Jewish merchants in Poltava and 292 Jews classed as towns men (about one fifth of the total number of inhabitants).… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Poltava (disambiguation) — Poltava may refer to: *Poltava, a city in Ukraine *Battle of Poltava, 1709 * Poltava , a Russian battleship * Poltava , a poem by Alexander Pushkin … Wikipedia
Poltava — [pō̂l tä′vä] city in EC Ukraine: scene of a battle (1709) in which the Russians under Peter the Great defeated Sweden: pop. 320,000 … English World dictionary
Battle of Poltava — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Poltava partof=Great Northern War caption= The Battle of Poltava by Denis Martens the Younger, painted 1726 date=June 28 1709 (July 8, New Style) place=Poltava, (present day Ukraine) result=Decisive… … Wikipedia
Poltava — Infobox Settlement official name = Poltava native name = Полтава nickname = imagesize = 250px image caption = imagesize = 250px image caption = image shield = Poltava coat.svg image coa = Poltav s.gif nickname = motto = mapsize = 250px map… … Wikipedia
Poltava (cuirassé) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Poltava. Poltava (Полтава) Autres noms Poltava (П … Wikipédia en Français
Battle of Port Arthur — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Port Arthur (naval) partof=the Russo Japanese War caption=Japanese ukiyoe woodblock print of the night attack on Port Arthur. date=8 February 1904 9 February 1904 place=Near Port Arthur, Manchuria… … Wikipedia
Battle of Helsingborg (1710) — A first Battle of Helsingborg was fought 1362 Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Helsingborg partof=Great Northern War caption=German copperplate depicting the battle. (Krigsarkivet) date=February 28, 1710 place=Helsingborg, Sweden… … Wikipedia
Battle — This article is about combat. For other meanings, see Battle (disambiguation). Generally, a battle is a conceptual component in the hierarchy of combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. In a battle, each combatant will… … Wikipedia