- Polish Succession, War of the
(1733–38) European conflict waged ostensibly to determine the successor to Augustus II.Austria and Russia supported his son Augustus III, while most Poles, France, and Spain supported Stanisław I, a former Polish king (1704–09) and father-in-law of France's Louis XV. Stanisław was elected king in 1733, but a Russian threat forced him to flee, and Augustus was elected in his place. France, with Sardinia and Spain, declared war on Austria (1733), seeking to reclaim territory in Italy held by Austria. An inconclusive campaign ended in the preliminary Peace of Vienna (1735), which redistributed the disputed Italian territory and recognized Augustus as king. A final treaty was signed in 1738.
* * *▪ European history(1733–38), general European conflict waged ostensibly to determine the successor of the king of Poland, Augustus II the Strong. The rivalry between two candidates for the kingdom of Poland was taken as the pretext for hostilities by governments whose real quarrels with each other had in fact very little connection with Polish affairs. The war resulted mainly in a redistribution of Italian territory and an increase in Russian influence over Polish affairs.After Augustus died (Feb. 1, 1733), Austria and Russia supported the election of his son Frederick Augustus II (Augustus II) of Saxony as king of Poland. Most Poles, however, preferred Stanisław (Stanisław I) I Leszczyński, who had been their king (1704–09) when the Swedes had temporarily forced Augustus II to be deposed and who also had become connected to France via the marriage of his daughter Marie to King Louis XV. France and Spain both opposed the Austro-Russian position and supported Leszczyński, who was elected king of Poland by a sejm (Diet) of 12,000 delegates in Warsaw on Sept. 12, 1733. But when a Russian army of 30,000 approached Warsaw, Leszczyński fled to Gdańsk, and another sejm of 3,000 delegates named Frederick Augustus as Poland's new king, Augustus III (Oct. 5, 1733). France consequently formed anti-Habsburg alliances with Sardinia-Savoy (September 26) and Spain (November 7) and declared war on Austria (October 10).Don Carlos (Charles III), the Spanish infante, led a Spanish army of 40,000 across Tuscany and the Papal States to Naples, defeated the Austrians at Bitonto (May 25, 1734), conquered Sicily, and was crowned king of Naples and Sicily as Charles III. The French, however, after overrunning Lorraine, were effectively checked in southern Germany by Austria's prince Eugene of Savoy. Furthermore, the French and Savoyard forces that invaded Lombardy were unable to take Mantua, and the small French contingent sent by sea to relieve the Russian siege of Gdańsk was ineffective. Gdańsk fell in June 1734.Leszczyński escaped to Prussia, and to support him the Poles organized the Confederation of Dzików (November 1734), which, however, failed to defeat the Russians and Augustus. Furthermore, dissension between the Spaniards and the Savoyards made the Italian campaign of 1735 inconclusive; and, because the French feared that the British and the Dutch would enter the war as Austria's allies, France signed a preliminary peace with Austria (Peace of Vienna; Oct. 3, 1735). It provided for Augustus to remain king of Poland. In addition, Don Carlos was to retain Naples-Sicily but had to give Austria both Parma and Piacenza, which he had inherited in 1731, and to renounce his claims to Tuscany. Sardinia-Savoy also acquired Novara and Tortona from Lombardy, which remained a Habsburg possession. Following the settlement, Leszczyński renounced the crown (Jan. 26, 1736), and the Dzików Confederation recognized Augustus as king (July 1736).On Nov. 18, 1738, France and Austria signed the final Treaty of Vienna, in which the provisions of the preliminary agreement were confirmed and in which France also conditionally guaranteed the Pragmatic Sanction, by which Holy Roman emperor Charles VI named his daughter, the Austrian archduchess Maria Theresa, as the heiress to his Habsburg lands. The other outstanding belligerents acceded to the peace in 1739.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Polish–Ottoman War (1620–1621) — Polish–Ottoman War 1620–1621 Part of Polish–Ottoman Wars Battle of Khotyn, by … Wikipedia
Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618) — For other Polish Russian conflicts, see Polish–Russian War (disambiguation). Polish–Muscovite War of 1605–1618 Map of the war. Important battles marked with crossed swords … Wikipedia
War of the Polish Succession — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=War of the Polish Succession partof= caption=Siege of Gdańsk by russo saxon forces in 1734. date=1733 1738 place=Europe: Poland, Rhineland, Northern Italy casus=Dispute amongst the major powers over the… … Wikipedia
War of the Austrian Succession — The Battle of Fontenoy by Édouard Detaille. Oil on canvas … Wikipedia
War of the Spanish Succession — Philip V of Spain and the Duke of Vendôme commanded the Franco Spanish charge at the Battle of Villaviciosa by Jean Alaux (1840) … Wikipedia
Polish civil war — may be used to refer to events also known as Pagan reaction in Poland (1030s) People s uprising in Poland (1038) 12th 15th centuries: numerous small conflicts of the time of fragmentation of Poland, particularly in the Duchies of Silesia… … Wikipedia
War of the Polish Succession (1587–1588) — The War of the Polish Succession took place from 1587 to 1588 over the election of monarch after the death of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Stephen Báthory. The war was fought between factions of Sigismund III Vasa and Maximilian III … Wikipedia
Polish–Teutonic War (1326–1332) — Polish–Teutonic War (1326 [Various sources differ giving either 1326 or 1327 as the starting date of this conflict] –1332) was the war between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights, fought from 1326 to 1332.John of Luxemburg, King of… … Wikipedia
Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) — Infobox Military Conflict conflict = Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) or the Lithuanian Civil War partof = Polish–Teutonic Wars caption = Monument in the field of the Battle of Pabaiskas. This decisive battle ended the war. date = 1431–1435 place … Wikipedia
Polish–Russian War — Wars fought between Poland and Russia include: *Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars of the 16th century *Livonian War (1558–1583) *Polish–Muscovite War (1605–1618) *Smolensk War (1632–1634) *Russo–Polish War (1654–1667) *War of the Polish Succession… … Wikipedia
Polish Corridor — The Polish Corridor in 1923 1939 … Wikipedia