Planudes, Maximus


Planudes, Maximus
orig. Manuel Planudes

died с 1310, Constantinople

Greek Orthodox scholar, anthologist, and polemicist.

He established a school in Constantinople that gained a strong reputation for its humanities curriculum. His Greek translations of Latin philosophy and literature and of Arabic mathematics publicized these areas of learning throughout the Greek Byzantine cultural world. Though chiefly known for his theological writings, he made a distinctive contribution to the history of Greek literature with his revision of the Greek Anthology, a collection of Greek prose and poetry с 700 BC–AD 1000.

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▪ Turkish scholar and theologian
original name  Manuel Planudes 
born 1260, Nicomedia, Byzantine Empire [now İzmit, Turkey]
died c. 1310, , Constantinople [now Istanbul]

      Greek Orthodox humanities scholar, anthologist, and theological polemicist in the controversy between Byzantium and Rome. His Greek translations of works in classical Latin philosophy and literature and in Arabic mathematics publicized these areas of learning throughout the Greek Byzantine cultural world.

      After entering political life in Constantinople, Planudes retired to a monastery in 1283 because of factional strife. He later returned to Constantinople, where he established a monastery for laymen and opened a school by the imperial library. Drawing students from the royal family and nobility, the school gained an academic reputation for its thorough humanities curriculum. Planudes' eminence derived in large part from his competence in the Latin language. This linguistic ability prompted his appointment as the emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus' emissary to Venice in 1295–96.

      Among the Latin writings that Planudes translated into Greek were De Trinitate (“On the Trinity”) by the 5th-century Church Father Augustine of Hippo, and logical and theological tracts by the 6th-century philosopher-statesman Boethius. Equally significant were Planudes' translations of the essays and rhetoric of Cicero and the poetry of Ovid.

      A distinctive contribution to the history of Greek literature was Planudes' revision of the Anthologia Hellēnikē (Greek Anthology) (“Greek Anthology”), a renowned collection of Greek prose and poetry comprising authors from about 700 BC to AD 1000 and edited variously from the 1st to the 11th century. Although parts of the reconstituted texts show Planudes' personal interpretations, the Anthologia, illustrating the continuity of Greek letters for almost 2,000 years, helped the development of modern Italian and French by its influence on 15th-century writers. Similarly, his revision of the Life and Fables of Aesop and his commentary on Theocritus, the 3rd-century-BC creator of Greek pastoral verse, assisted in popularizing this literature throughout Europe.

      The evolution of mathematics in Byzantium, and subsequently in Europe, was stimulated by Planudes' Psephophoria kat' Indous (“Arithmetic According to the Indians” [i.e., Arabs]). Influenced by the Baghdad school, he encouraged the use of Arabic numerical notation, including the sign for zero, and introduced other mathematical operations (e.g., the extraction of square roots).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • PLANUDES Maximus — Monachus, unus ex conservatoribus Graecae linguae. Transtulit Graece libellum, de moribus regendis, qui Cato inscribitur. Convertit et in eandem linguam opera D. Augustini, annis aliquot ante Constantinopolim captam. Dicitur et fabulas: quae… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Planudes, Maximus — orig. Manuel Planudes (1260, Nicomedia, Imperio Bizantino–1310, Constantinopla). Estudioso, antologador y polemista griego ortodoxo. Fundó una escuela en Constantinopla que alcanzó una sólida reputación por su currículum de humanidades. Sus… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Maximus Planudes — (* um 1260 in Nikomedia in Bithynien; † 1330 in Konstantinopel) war ein byzantinischer Grammatiker und Theologe, der seine Blütezeit unter den Kaisern Michael VIII. und Andronikos II. hatte. Er verbrachte den größten Teil seines Lebens in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Planudes — Maximus Planudes (* um 1260 in Nikomedia in Bithynien; † 1330 in Konstantinopel) war ein byzantinischer Grammatiker und Theologe, der seine Blütezeit unter den Kaisern Michael VIII. und Andronikos II. hatte. Er verbrachte den größten Teil seines… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Maximus Planudes — Maximus Planudes, less often Maximos Planoudes (Greek: Μάξιμος Πλανούδης, c. 1260 c. 1305[1]), Byzantine grammarian and theologian, flourished during the reigns of Michael VIII Palaeologus and Andronicus II Palaeologus. He was born at Nicomedia… …   Wikipedia

  • Planūdes — Planūdes, Maximus, Mönch zu Constantinopel u. Grammatiker um 1327; er schr. mehre theologische Schriften (z.B. De processione Spiritus s., Rom 1630); veranstaltete eine Sammlung Äsopischer Fabeln (s. u. Äsopos 1) u. schrieb die märchenhafte… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Planudes — Planūdes, Maximus, gelehrter Mönch zu Konstantinopel, geb. um 1260, gest. um 1310; übersetzte lat. Schriftsteller ins Griechische, sammelte die Gedichte der Griechischen Anthologie …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Planudes — Planudes, Maximus, gelehrter Mönch zu Konstantinopel, gest. nach 1353, machte einen Auszug aus der griech. Anthologie des konstantin. Cephalas, übersetzte lat. Autoren, schrieb Scholien, Grammatisches …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Maximus — (as used in expressions) Fabius Maximus Cunctator Quintus Maximus the Greek Planudes Maximus * * * …   Universalium

  • Maximus Planudes — Maxime Planude, en latin Maximus Planudes (né vers 1260 à Nicomédie 1330), grammairien et théologien byzantin, vécut sous les règnes de Michel VIII et Andronic II. Hellénophone de naissance, Planude avait une connaissance du latin remarquable à… …   Wikipédia en Français


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