Philopoemen


Philopoemen
born с 253, Megalopolis, Arcadia
died 182 BC, Messene, Messenia

General of the Achaean League.

Elected federal cavalry commander (с 210) and general of the league (208–207, 206–205, 201–200), he won victories against the Aetolians and the Spartans, using Macedonian armour and tactics. In his fourth generalship (193–192) he failed against the Spartans by sea but crushed their army on land. The Roman Flamininus stopped his capture of Sparta, but when the Spartan leader was assassinated Philopoemen added that state to the confederation. He was captured when Messene rebelled and given poison.

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▪ Greek general

born c. 252 BC, Megalopolis, Arcadia
died 182, Messene, Messenia

      general of the Achaean League notable for his restoration of Achaean military efficiency.

      He was trained to a career of arms by the Academic philosophers Ecdelus and Demophanes. After spending some 10 years as a mercenary leader in Crete, he returned to Achaea and was elected federal cavalry commander for 210/209, when his reorganized cavalry defeated the Aetolians on the Elean frontier. As general of the confederation for 208/207 he introduced heavier Macedonian armour and phalanx tactics and crushed the Spartans under Machanidas at Mantineia (207). General again in 206/205 and 201/200, he expelled Nabis of Sparta from Messene and routed him at Tegea. In a fourth generalship (193/192) he failed against Nabis by sea but almost annihilated his army near Gythium. The Roman general Flamininus prevented his taking Sparta, but on Nabis' assassination (192) Philopoemen incorporated it in the confederation. Henceforth he dominated Achaean policy, but, when Messene rebelled, he was taken in a skirmish and given poison (182). Plutarch relates his life.

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Universalium. 2010.

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