- Nürnberg trials
(1945–46) Trials of former Nazi Party leaders held in Nürnberg, Ger.At the end of World War II, the International Military Tribunal was established by the U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union to indict and try former Nazis as war criminals. The tribunal defined the offenses as crimes against peace (planning and waging of war in violation of treaties), crimes against humanity (extermination, deportation, and genocide), and war crimes. After 216 court sessions, 3 of the original 22 defendants were acquitted, 4 (including Karl Dönitz and Albert Speer) were sentenced to prison for terms of 10 to 20 years, 3 (including Rudolf Hess) were sentenced to life imprisonment, and 12 (including Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, and Julius Streicher) were sentenced to death by hanging. Hermann Göring committed suicide before he could be executed, and Martin Bormann was convicted in absentia.
* * *▪ World War II trialsNürnberg also spelled Nurembergseries of trials held in Nürnberg, Germany, in 1945–46, in which former Nazi (Nazi Party) leaders were indicted and tried as war criminals by the International Military Tribunal. The indictment lodged against them contained four counts: (1) crimes against peace (i.e., the planning, initiating, and waging of wars of aggression in violation of international treaties and agreements), (2) crimes against humanity (i.e., exterminations, deportations, and genocide), (3) war crimes (war crime) (i.e., violations of the laws of war), and (4) “a common plan or conspiracy to commit” the criminal acts listed in the first three counts.The authority of the International Military Tribunal to conduct these trials stemmed from the London Agreement of August 8, 1945. On that date, representatives from the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the provisional government of France signed an agreement that included a charter for an international military tribunal to conduct trials of major Axis war criminals whose offenses had no particular geographic location. Later, 19 other nations accepted the provisions of this agreement. The tribunal was given the authority to find any individual guilty of the commission of war crimes (counts 1–3 listed above) and to declare any group or organization to be criminal in character. If an organization was found to be criminal, the prosecution could bring individuals to trial for having been members, and the criminal nature of the group or organization could no longer be questioned. A defendant was entitled to receive a copy of the indictment, to offer any relevant explanation to the charges brought against him, and to be represented by counsel and confront and cross-examine the witnesses.The tribunal consisted of a member plus an alternate selected by each of the four signatory countries. The first session, under the presidency of General I.T. Nikitchenko, the Soviet member, took place on October 18, 1945, in Berlin. At this time, 24 former Nazi leaders were charged with the perpetration of war crimes, and various groups (such as the Gestapo, the Nazi secret police) were charged with being criminal in character. Beginning on November 20, 1945, all sessions of the tribunal were held in Nürnberg under the presidency of Lord Justice Geoffrey Lawrence (later Baron Trevethin and Oaksey), the British member.After 216 court sessions, on October 1, 1946, the verdict on 22 of the original 24 defendants was handed down. (Robert Ley (Ley, Robert) committed suicide while in prison, and Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, Gustav)'s mental and physical condition prevented his being tried.) Three of the defendants were acquitted: Hjalmar Schacht (Schacht, Hjalmar), Franz von Papen (Papen, Franz von), and Hans Fritzsche (Fritzsche, Hans). Four were sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging from 10 to 20 years: Karl Dönitz (Dönitz, Karl), Baldur von Schirach (Schirach, Baldur von), Albert Speer (Speer, Albert), and Konstantin von Neurath (Neurath, Konstantin, Baron von). Three were sentenced to life imprisonment: Rudolf Hess (Hess, Rudolf), Walther Funk (Funk, Walther), and Erich Raeder (Raeder, Erich). Twelve of the defendants were sentenced to death by hanging. Ten of them—Hans Frank (Frank, Hans), Wilhelm Frick (Frick, Wilhelm), Julius Streicher (Streicher, Julius), Alfred Rosenberg (Rosenberg, Alfred), Ernst Kaltenbrunner (Kaltenbrunner, Ernst), Joachim von Ribbentrop (Ribbentrop, Joachim von), Fritz Sauckel (Sauckel, Fritz), Alfred Jodl (Jodl, Alfred), Wilhelm Keitel (Keitel, Wilhelm), and Arthur Seyss-Inquart (Seyss-Inquart, Arthur)—were hanged on October 16, 1946. Martin Bormann (Bormann, Martin) was tried and condemned to death in absentia, and Hermann Göring (Göring, Hermann) committed suicide before he could be executed.In rendering these decisions, the tribunal rejected the major defenses offered by the defendants. First, it rejected the contention that only a state, and not individuals, could be found guilty of war crimes; the tribunal held that crimes of international law are committed by men and that only by punishing individuals who commit such crimes can the provisions of international law be enforced. Second, it rejected the argument that the trial and adjudication were ex post facto. The tribunal responded that such acts had been regarded as criminal prior to World War II.
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Nürnberg — /nyuurddn berddk /, n. German name of Nuremberg. * * * I also known as Nuremberg City (pop., 2002 est.: city, 491,307; metro. area, 1,018,211), Bavaria, southern Germany, on the Pegnitz River. It grew up around a castle in the 11th century, and… … Universalium
Nurnberg Fish Trials — is Flipper s third live album. Nurnberg Fish Trials Studio album by Flipper Released 1991 Flipper chronology … Wikipedia
Nürnberg (disambiguation) — Nürnberg or Nuremberg may refer to: Contents 1 Places 2 Law 3 Nazism 4 … Wikipedia
Nurnberg — noun a city in southeastern Germany; site of Allied trials of Nazi war criminals (1945 46) • Syn: ↑Nuremberg • Instance Hypernyms: ↑city, ↑metropolis, ↑urban center • Part Holonyms: ↑Germany, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Nuremberg Trials bibliography — The following is a bibliography devoted to the Nuremberg Trials Allen, Charles R. Nazi War Criminals in America: Facts. Action: The Basic Handbook. Charles R. Allen, Jr. New York: Highgate House, 1985. American Bar Association. Section of… … Wikipedia
Tribunal von Nürnberg — Auf der Anklagebank: Göring, Heß, von Ribbentrop, Keitel (vorne), Dönitz, Raeder, von Schirach und Sauckel (dahinter) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Nuremberg Trials — For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). The Holocaust … Wikipedia
war crime — war criminal. Usually, war crimes. crimes committed against an enemy, prisoners of war, or subjects in wartime that violate international agreements or, as in the case of genocide, are offenses against humanity. [1940 45] * * * Any violation of… … Universalium
holocaust — holocaustal, adj. holocaustic, adj. /hol euh kawst , hoh leuh /, n. 1. a great or complete devastation or destruction, esp. by fire. 2. a sacrifice completely consumed by fire; burnt offering. 3. (usually cap.) the systematic mass slaughter of… … Universalium
Germany — /jerr meuh nee/, n. a republic in central Europe: after World War II divided into four zones, British, French, U.S., and Soviet, and in 1949 into East Germany and West Germany; East and West Germany were reunited in 1990. 84,068,216; 137,852 sq.… … Universalium