- Navajo weaving
Blankets and rugs made by the Navajo, considered among the best-made textiles produced by Native Americans of the U.S. By 1500 the Navajo were well established in what is now the southwestern U.S., where they began to practice weaving when they turned from a seminomadic life to agriculture.From the Hopi they learned how to make looms and weave fabrics on a large scale; but whereas the Hopi limited their designs to striped patterns, the Navajo introduced geometric shapes, diamonds, lozenges, and zigzags. Traditionally Navajo blankets were made of natural-coloured wool or wool in dark colours produced by dyes made from roots, herbs, and minerals. After the introduction of aniline dyes in the late 19th century, Navajo weavers began using brighter wools and a broader range of decorative motifs.
* * *▪ artblankets and rugs made by the Navajo and thought to be some of the most colourful and best-made textiles produced by North American Indians. The Navajo, formerly a seminomadic tribe, settled in the southwestern United States in the 10th and 11th centuries and were well established by 1500. With a new life as a sedentary and agricultural people, the tribe began to practice weaving, which had been virtually unknown to them, learning from the Hopi how to build looms and construct fabrics on a large scale. The introduction of domestic sheep by Europeans revolutionized weaving by making a steady supply of wool available, and the Navajo began to raise sheep for wool.The Hopi had limited their designs to striped patterns, but the Navajo introduced geometric shapes, diamonds, lozenges, and zig-zags. Symbolic representations of such phenomena as the elements, the seasons, and the times of day did not develop until about 1820. Mexican design influenced Navajo weaving.Before 1800, Navajo blankets were largely made of natural-coloured wool—black, white, and a mixture of the two that produced gray; a limited amount of dyeing was done, with roots, herbs, and minerals from the rich soil of the area, primarily producing dark colours, like those of the Hopi. Shortly after the turn of the 19th century, however, red bayeta cloth purchased from the Spaniards was unraveled and the thread used to make Navajo textiles. The introduction of aniline dyes in the late 19th century led to a period in Navajo weaving characterized by bright and even gaudy designs. Vividly coloured yarns were used to weave into the rugs and blankets a broad range of decorative motifs based on commonplace modern objects; representations of automobiles, bottles, tomato cans, and airplanes, for example, found their way into the formerly dignified and restrained fabrics.More traditional, geometric designs subsequently regained their popularity and are once again the dominant patterns. Weaving remains a vital aspect of contemporary Navajo community life and of its economy.
* * *
См. также в других словарях:
Navajo weaving — A contemporary Navajo rug. Navajo rugs and blankets (Navajo: diyogí) are textiles produced by Navajo people of the Four Corners area of the United States. Navajo textiles are highly regarded and have been sought … Wikipedia
Navajo rug — Navajo rugs and blankets are textiles produced by Navajo people ( nv. Diné ) of the Four Corners area of the United States. Navajo textiles are highly regarded and have been sought after as trade items for over 150 years. Commercial production of … Wikipedia
Navajo people — Navajo Diné, Naabeehó Navajo portraits Total population 300,048 (2011) … Wikipedia
Weaving — Weaver (occupation) redirects here. This article is about textile weaving. For other uses, see Weaving (disambiguation). Warp and weft in plain weaving Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are… … Wikipedia
weaving — Production of fabric by interlacing two sets of yarns so that they cross each other, normally at right angles, usually accomplished with a hand or power operated loom. In weaving, lengthwise yarns are called warp and crosswise yarns are called… … Universalium
Navajo Nation — Naabeehó Bináhásdzo (Diné Bikéyah) Reservation … Wikipedia
Navajo language — Navajo Diné bizaad Spoken in USA Region Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado Native speakers 171,000 … Wikipedia
Navajo Scouts — and a cavalryman at Fort Wingate, circa 1890. Active 1873 1895 … Wikipedia
Navajo Preparatory School — Address 1220 West Apache Street Farmington, New Mexico, 87401 United States Information School type College Preparatory School Motto … Wikipedia
Navajo Nation Council Chamber — U.S. National Register of Historic Places U.S. National Historic Landmark … Wikipedia