Moroccan crises

Moroccan crises
(1905–06, 1911) Two European incidents centring on Germany's attempt to block France's control of Morocco and to restrict French power.

While visiting Tangier in 1905, the German emperor William II issued a statement of support for Moroccan independence, which caused international panic. The crisis was resolved at the Algeciras Conference (1906), which recognized France's special political interests in Morocco. The second crisis occurred in 1911 when a German gunboat arrived in Agadir, ostensibly to protect German economic interests during a local uprising. The French objected and made preparations for war, as did Britain, but a settlement was negotiated that gave France rights to a protectorship over Morocco. In return, Germany acquired part of the French Congo.

* * *

      (1905–06, 1911), two international crises centring on France's attempts to control Morocco and on Germany's concurrent attempts to stem French power.

      In 1904 France had concluded a secret treaty with Spain partitioning Morocco and had also agreed not to oppose Britain's moves in Egypt in exchange for a free hand in Morocco. Germany, however, insisted upon an open-door policy in the area; and, in a dramatic show of imperial power, the emperor William II visited Tangier and, from his yacht on March 31, 1905, declared for Morocco's independence and integrity. The resultant international panic, the First Moroccan Crisis, was resolved in January–April 1906 at the Algeciras Conference, where German and other national economic rights were upheld and where the French and Spanish were entrusted with the policing of Morocco.

      On Feb. 8, 1908, a further Franco-German agreement reaffirmed Morocco's independence while recognizing France's “special political interests” and Germany's economic interests in North Africa.

      The Second Moroccan Crisis (Agadir Incident) (1911) was precipitated when the German gunboat Panther was sent to Agadir on July 1, 1911, ostensibly to protect German interests during a local native uprising in Morocco but in reality to cow the French. This “Agadir Incident” sparked a flurry of war talk during the summer and fall (the British even made preparations for eventual war), but international negotiations continued, and the crisis subsided with the conclusion of the convention of Nov. 4, 1911, in which France was given rights to a protectorship over Morocco and, in return, Germany was given strips of territory from the French Congo. Spain at first objected; but, through the intervention of Great Britain, a Franco-Spanish treaty was concluded on Nov. 27, 1912, slightly revising the previous Franco-Spanish boundaries in Morocco. The negotiations of 1911–12 between the powers also led up to the eventual internationalization of the Tangier zone, consisting of Tangier and its environs, in 1923.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Scramble for Africa — For the book by Thomas Pakenham, see Thomas Pakenham (historian)#The Scramble for Africa. For information on the colonization of Africa prior to the 1880s, including Carthaginian and early European colonization, see Colonization of Africa. The… …   Wikipedia

  • Algeciras Conference — (Jan. 16–April 7, 1906) Conference held at Algeciras, Spain, that resolved the first of the Moroccan crises. In 1905 William II objected to France s efforts to exert influence in Morocco, prompting a conference of the European powers and the U.S …   Universalium

  • History of Morocco — This article is part of a series Ancient Morocco …   Wikipedia

  • Kiderlen-Wächter, Alfred von — born July 10, 1852, Stuttgart, Württemberg died Dec. 30, 1912, Stuttgart German diplomat. A career diplomat, he became foreign secretary in 1910 and pursued a belligerent foreign policy, working to establish Germany as the leading power in Europe …   Universalium

  • William II — 1. (William Rufus) ( the Red ) 1056? 1100, King of England 1087 1100 (son of William I, duke of Normandy). 2. Also, Wilhelm II. (Frederick Wilhelm Viktor Albert) 1859 1941, king of Prussia and emperor of Germany 1888 1918. * * * I Dutch Willem… …   Universalium

  • Tangier — /tan jear /, n. a seaport in N Morocco, on the W Strait of Gibraltar: capital of the former Tangier Zone. 243,600. Also, Tangiers /tan jearz /. French, Tanger /tahonn zhay /. * * * French Tanger Arabic Ṭanjah ancient Tingis Seaport city (pop.,… …   Universalium

  • Agadir — /ah gah dear /, n. a seaport in SW Morocco: destroyed by earthquake in 1960; new town rebuilt S of original site. 1,220,600. * * * Seaport city (pop., 1994: 155,240), southwestern Morocco on the Atlantic coast. It was occupied in the 16th century …   Universalium

  • Origins of World War I — The origins of World War I included many factors, including the conflicts and antagonisms of the four decades leading up to the war. The immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the July crisis of… …   Wikipedia

  • Entente cordiale — The Entente cordiale is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. Beyond the immediate concerns of colonial expansion addressed by the agreement, the signing of the Entente cordiale marked the end of… …   Wikipedia

  • Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald von — born Nov. 29, 1856, Hohenfinow, Prussia died Jan. 1, 1921, Hohenfinow, Germany German politician and chancellor (1909–17). A member of the civil service, he was appointed Prussian minister of the interior in 1905 and became German chancellor in… …   Universalium


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»