- Mogollon culture
Complex of North American Indians who lived in what is now southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, U.S., с 200 BC–AD 1200.The first pottery in the Southwest was made by the Mogollon; its high quality from the beginning suggests that the craft may have been imported from Mexico. The early economy was based on gathering wild plant foods and hunting small game. Corn cultivation emerged с AD 500. At this time houses also became more elaborate, being constructed of stone masonry. In the final, or Mimbres, period (1050–1200), new patterns of house design (multilevel pueblos centred on a plaza) and pottery (crisp black-on-white designs of animals or geometric lines) emerged, suggesting contact with the Anasazi peoples to the north. For unknown reasons, Mogollon culture came to an end in the 13th century.
* * *▪ North American Indian cultureprehistoric North American Indian peoples who, from approximately AD 200–1450, lived in the mostly mountainous region of what are now southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Their name derives from the Mogollon Mountains in New Mexico. The culture is presumed to have developed out of the earlier Cochise culture, with additional influences from elsewhere. The first pottery in the Southwest was made by the Mogollon, and it was well made from the beginning, suggesting that the craft may have been imported from Mexico.The Mogollon culture has been divided into various developmental periods, though consensus is lacking because of incomplete evidence and because of the different rates of development across the immense geographic area these people inhabited. In speaking about Mogollon culture generally, however, scholars frequently make reference to five developmental periods: Mogollon 1 and 2, approximately AD 200–650; Mogollon 3, 650–850; Mogollon 4, 850–1000; and Mogollon 5, 1000–1450, which includes the Classic Mimbres phase, 1050–1200.During the Mogollon 1 period, the people lived in small villages of circular wattle-and-daub (wattle and daub) pit houses, the floors of which were from 10 to 40 inches (25 to 100 cm) below ground level; entrance was usually through tunnels. They obtained food principally by foraging wild seeds, roots, and nuts, though agriculture was apparently incipient at this time. It is thought that hunting in this period focused on small prey, such as rabbits and lizards, that could be caught in nets or snares. Pottery, as already noted, was being made and differed in type from that which would be developed by neighbouring groups. The same basic pattern continued in the Mogollon 2, except that more varieties of pottery appeared and corn (maize) cultivation and the hunting of larger game such as deer assumed predominance.This pattern persisted into the Mogollon 3 period; the major changes marking this period include additional pottery types and the transition from round, lightly built pit houses to more heavily built pit homes. The people began to build separate ceremonial pit structures, or kivas. The appearance of these structures suggests the influence of the Ancestral Pueblo (Ancestral Pueblo culture) (Anasazi), whose homeland was in northern New Mexico.In the Mogollon 4 period the means of subsistence continued as before. Pit homes were increasingly constructed of stone masonry, again suggesting Ancestral Pueblo influence. Pottery types became more various and sophisticated.In the Mogollon 5 period, and especially during the Mimbres phase, profound changes occurred: pit houses were replaced by adobe and masonry apartment houses that were built at ground level and rose one to three stories high. These pueblo villages sometimes contained 40 to 50 rooms arranged around a plaza. Such traits, together with others, were probably introduced to the area by Ancestral Pueblo. There is evidence from this period that Ancestral Pueblo and Mogollon individuals lived peacefully in the same villages.The Mogollon culture ended for unknown reasons in the 15th century. The people abandoned their villages, perhaps dispersing over the landscape or joining other village groups.
* * *
См. также в других словарях:
Mogollon culture — The Mogollon ( /mʌɡɨ … Wikipedia
Mogollon — may refer to: Contents 1 Anthropology 2 Cryptozoology 3 Geography 4 … Wikipedia
Mogollon Plateau — The Mogollon Plateau or Mogollon Mesa (pronounced /mʌɡɨˈjoʊn/, /moʊɡəˈjoʊn/) is a pine covered southern plateau section of the larger Colorado Plateau in east central Arizona. The southern boundary of the plateau is the Mogollon Rim. The… … Wikipedia
Mogollon — Verbreitungsgebiet der Kultur Die Mogollon Kultur ist eine prähistorische Indianer Kultur im Südwesten Nordamerikas, die je nach Interpretation zwischen 200 v. Chr. bis 250 n. Chr. begann und entweder um 1400 in der Kultur der Anasazi aufging… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Mogollon-Kultur — Verbreitungsgebiet der Kultur Die Mogollon Kultur ist eine prähistorische Indianer Kultur im Südwesten Nordamerikas, die je nach Interpretation zwischen 200 v. Chr. bis 250 n. Chr. begann und entweder um 1400 in der Kultur der … Deutsch Wikipedia
culture — /kul cheuhr/, n., v., cultured, culturing. n. 1. the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc. 2. that which is excellent in the arts, manners,… … Universalium
Mogollon Monster — The Mogollon Rim, Arizona Creature Grouping Cryptid Sub grouping Hominid … Wikipedia
Culture classique de Veracruz — et sites importants de l’ère classique … Wikipédia en Français
Culture de Hopewell — Culture Hopewell Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hopewell. Le Mound City Group en Chillicothe, Ohio, USA La culture Hopewe … Wikipédia en Français
Mogollon — La région des Mogollons (en vert). Elle est voisine des cultures Hohokam (en violet) et Anasazi (en orange). Les trois sites archéologiques les plus importants de cette région sont Mesa Verde (1), Chaco Canyon (2) et Gila Cliff (3) Mogollon… … Wikipédia en Français