- Moeris, Lake
Extinct lake, northern Egypt.It once occupied the Al-Fayyūm depression, now the site of the much smaller Lake Qārūn. Its waters began falling in Paleolithic times as a result of silt accumulation in the channel that flowed from the Nile River. During the Middle Kingdom (с 2040–1786 BC), dredging renewed access to the Nile's waters. Land-reclamation projects in the 3rd century BC drained the lake, opening 450 sq mi (1,200 sq km) of alluvial soil that was irrigated by canals. The region declined after the first two centuries of Roman rule.
* * *Arabic Birkat Qārūn,ancient lake that once occupied a large area of the al-Fayyūm depression in Egypt and is now represented by the much smaller Lake Qārūn. Researches on the desert margin of the depression indicate that in early Paleolithic times the lake's waters stood about 120 feet (37 m) above sea level and probably filled the depression; the lake's level gradually fell until about 10,000 BC, when it was about 15 feet (4 1/2 m) below sea level, perhaps because its connection with the Nile River was temporarily cut off. Early in the Neolithic Period (nearly 4,000–11,000 years ago), the lake rose again and then gradually subsided. Neolithic and Early Dynastic people made their homes on the slowly shrinking shores.Not until the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (c. 2040–1786 BC) were attempts made to stop the gradual silting of the channel connecting the lake with the Nile. Probably either Sesostris II or Amenemhet III widened and deepened the channel, thus setting the lake once more in hydraulic equilibrium with the river. The lake, which was then 55 feet (17 m) above sea level, served both as a flood control that was able to take excess water from overly high Nile floods and as a reservoir whose waters could be used for irrigation after the Nile flood had subsided. In about 450 BC when Herodotus visited the lake, he assumed it to be artificial and was told that it had been dug by King Moeris at least 900 years before.Large land-reclamation projects in the Fayyum region were carried out by the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt. Under Ptolemy II Philadelphus in the 3rd century BC, Lake Moeris was partially drained by means of a dam that restricted the entry of Nile water into it. The rich alluvial soil that was thus laid bare (approximately 450 square miles [1,200 square km] of it) was irrigated by canals and subjected to intensive cultivation. The population around the lake thus increased at a rapid rate, and a number of new towns sprang up. The modern-day excavation of several of these sites has yielded a rich harvest of Hellenistic and Roman papyri. The Fayyum region continued to flourish during the first two centuries of Roman rule, but thereafter it declined. The water levels of Lake Moeris subsequently continued to decrease, leading to the shallow and relatively small Lake Qārūn of modern times.
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lake — lake1 /layk/, n. 1. a body of fresh or salt water of considerable size, surrounded by land. 2. any similar body or pool of other liquid, as oil. 3. (go) jump in the lake, (used as an exclamation of dismissal or impatience.) [bef. 1000; ME lak(e) … Universalium
Lake — /layk/, n. Simon, 1866 1945, U.S. engineer and naval architect. * * * I Relatively large body of slow moving or standing water that occupies an inland basin. Lakes are most abundant in high northern latitudes and in mountain regions, particularly … Universalium
Moeris — may refer to: Moeris, a genus of butterflies in the grass skipper family. Lake Moeris, an ancient lake of Egypt Amenemhat III (c. 1860 1814 BC), a Twelfth Dynasty pharaoh who reportedly dug the lake Lacus Moeris, a surface feature on Mars Aelius… … Wikipedia
Moeris — former large lake of northern Egypt, from Egyptian mer ur big lake, from mer lake + ur big … Etymology dictionary
Lake Moeris — Survey of the Moeris Basin from the late 19th century Lake Moeris (Ancient Greek: Μοἵρις, genitive Μοίριδος) is an ancient lake in the northwest of the Faiyum Oasis, 80 km (50 mi) southwest of Cairo, Egypt. It persists in modern times… … Wikipedia
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Fayyūm, Al- — ▪ Egypt Fayyūm also spelled Faiyum, or Fayum, formerly Madīnat al Fayyūm, capital of Al Fayyūm (Fayyūm, Al ) muḥāfaẓah (governorate), Egypt. The town is located in the southeastern part of the governorate, on the site of the ancient… … Universalium
Amenemhet III — ▪ king of Egypt also called Amenemmes III king of ancient Egypt (Egypt, ancient) (reigned 1818–1770 BCE) of the 12th dynasty (Egypt, ancient), who brought Middle Kingdom (Egypt, ancient) Egypt (c. 1938–1630 BCE) to a peak of economic… … Universalium
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