Meitner, Lise


Meitner, Lise
born Nov. 7, 1878, Vienna, Austria
died Oct. 27, 1968, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.

German physicist.

She worked at Berlin's Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (1912–38), also teaching at the University of Berlin (1926–38). At a laboratory that she set up with Otto Hahn, the two isolated the radioactive isotope protactinium-231. In the 1930s, with Hahn and Fritz Strassmann (1902–80), she investigated the products of neutron bombardment of uranium. She left Germany in 1938 for Sweden. After Hahn and Strassmann demonstrated that barium appears in neutron-bombarded uranium, she and her nephew Otto Frisch (1904–79) explained the physical characteristics of this division and in 1939 proposed the term fission for the process. She shared the 1966 Enrico Fermi Award with Hahn and Strassmann. Element 109, meitnerium, is named in her honour.

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▪ Austrian physicist
born Nov. 7, 1878, Vienna
died Oct. 27, 1968, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng.
 Austrian-born physicist who shared the Enrico Fermi Award (1966) with the chemists Otto Hahn (Hahn, Otto) and Fritz Strassmann (Strassmann, Fritz) for their joint research that led to the discovery of uranium fission.

      After receiving her doctorate at the University of Vienna (1906), Meitner attended Max Planck's lectures at Berlin in 1907 and joined Hahn in research on radioactivity. During three decades of association, she and Hahn were among the first to isolate the isotope protactinium-231 (which they called protactinium), studied nuclear isomerism and beta decay, and in the 1930s (along with Strassmann) investigated the products of neutron bombardment of uranium. Because she was Jewish, she left Nazi Germany in the summer of 1938 to settle in Sweden. After Hahn and Strassmann had demonstrated that barium appears in neutron-bombarded uranium, Meitner, with her nephew Otto Frisch (Frisch, Otto Robert), elucidated the physical characteristics of this division and in January 1939 proposed the term fission for the process. She retired to England in 1960.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • MEITNER, LISE — (1878–1968), physicist and one of the small group responsible for the discovery of atomic fission. Born in Vienna, she moved to Berlin in 1917 and there joined the distinguished chemist Otto Hahn, with whom she worked in collaboration,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Meitner, Lise — (1878 1968)    physicist; Albert Einstein* dubbed her the German Madame Curie. Born to a Jewish lawyer in Vienna, she was drawn to science as a child. Ignoring her father s counsel against following physics, she began studies in 1901 at Vienna s… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Meitner , Lise — (1878–1968) Austrian–Swedish physicist Meitner, the daughter of a lawyer, was born in Vienna and entered the university there in 1901. She studied science under Ludwig Boltzmann and obtained her doctorate in 1906. From Vienna she went to Berlin… …   Scientists

  • Meitner,Lise — Meit·ner (mītʹnər), Lise. 1878 1968. Austrian born Swedish physicist and pioneer in the study of nuclear fission. * * * …   Universalium

  • Meitner, Lise — (1878 1968)    Austrian scientist. She studied at the University of Vienna and later worked in Berlin. In 1918 she discovered protactinium. During World War I she served as an X ray nurse for the Austrian army. Later she returned to Germany. In… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Meitner, Lise — ► (1878 1968) Física austríaca. Descubrió, con Hahn y Strassmann, la fisión del núcleo de uranio. * * * (7 nov. 1878, Viena, Austria–27 oct. 1968, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Inglaterra). Física alemana. Trabajó en el Instituto Kaiser Wilhelm de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Meitner Lise — Майтнер Лизе (1878 1968) физик и радиохимик, предложила ряд методов исследования радиоактивности. В 1907 1938 работала в Берлине, с 1938 в эмиграции …   Австрия. Лингвострановедческий словарь

  • Meitner — Lise …   Scientists

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  • Lise Meitner — Lise Meitner, vers 1900. Naissance 7 ou 17 novembre 1878 Vienne (Autriche) Décès 27 octobre 1968 Cambridge ( …   Wikipédia en Français


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