- Madison, James
born March 16, 1751, Port Conway, Va.died June 28, 1836, Montpelier, Va., U.S.Fourth president of the U.S. (1809–17).After graduating from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), he served in the Virginia state legislature (1776–80, 1784–86). At the Constitutional Convention (1787), his Virginia, or large-state, Plan furnished the Constitution's basic framework and guiding principles, earning him the title "father of the Constitution." To promote its ratification, he collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay on the Federalist papers, a series of articles on the Constitution and republican government published in newspapers in 1787–88 (Madison wrote 29 of the 85 articles). In the U.S. House of Representatives (1789–97), he sponsored the Bill of Rights. He split with Hamilton over the existence of an implied congressional power to create a national bank; Madison denied such a power, though later, as president, he requested a national bank from Congress. In protest of the Alien and Sedition Acts, he drafted one of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions in 1798 (Thomas Jefferson drafted the other). From 1801 to 1809 he was Jefferson's secretary of state. Elected president in 1808, he immediately faced the problem of British interference with neutral U.S. merchant vessels, which Jefferson's Embargo Act (1807) had failed to discourage. Believing that Britain was bent on permanent suppression of American commerce, Madison proclaimed nonintercourse with Britain in 1810 and signed a declaration of war in 1812. During the ensuing War of 1812 (1812–14), Madison and his family were forced to flee Washington, D.C., as advancing British troops burned the executive mansion and other public buildings. During Madison's second term (1813–17) the second Bank of the United States was chartered and the first U.S. protective tariff was imposed. He retired to his Virginia estate, Montpelier, with his wife, Dolley (1768–1849), whose political acumen he had long prized. He participated in Jefferson's creation of the University of Virginia, later serving as its rector (1826–36), and produced numerous articles and letters on political topics.
* * *▪ president of United StatesIntroductionborn March 16 [March 5, Old Style], 1751, Port Conway, Virginia [U.S.]died June 28, 1836, Montpelier, Virginia, U.S.fourth president of the United States (1809–17) and one of the Founding Fathers of his country. At the Constitutional Convention (1787), he influenced the planning and ratification of the U.S. Constitution and collaborated with Alexander Hamilton (Hamilton, Alexander) and John Jay (Jay, John) in the publication of the Federalist papers. As a member of the new House of Representatives, he sponsored the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, commonly called the Bill of Rights. He was secretary of state under President Thomas Jefferson (Jefferson, Thomas) when the Louisiana Territory was purchased from France. The War of 1812 (1812, War of) was fought during his presidency. (For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America.)Early life and political activitiesMadison was born at the home of his maternal grandmother. The son and namesake of a leading Orange county landowner and squire, he maintained his lifelong home in Virginia at Montpelier, near the Blue Ridge Mountains. In 1769 he rode horseback to the College of New Jersey (Princeton University), selected for its hostility to episcopacy. He completed the four-year course in two years, finding time also to demonstrate against England and to lampoon members of a rival literary society in ribald verse. Overwork produced several years of epileptoid hysteria and premonitions of early death, which thwarted military training but did not prevent home study of public law, mixed with early advocacy of independence (1774) and furious denunciation of the imprisonment of nearby dissenters from the established Anglican Church. Madison never became a church member, but in maturity he expressed a preference for Unitarianism.His health improved, and he was elected to Virginia's 1776 Revolutionary convention, where he drafted the state's guarantee of religious freedom. In the convention-turned-legislature he helped Thomas Jefferson disestablish the church but lost reelection by refusing to furnish the electors with free whiskey. After two years on the governor's council, he was sent to the Continental Congress in March 1780.Five feet four inches tall and weighing about 100 pounds, small boned, boyish in appearance, and weak of voice, he waited six months before taking the floor, but strong actions belied his mild demeanour. He rose quickly to leadership against the devotees of state sovereignty and enemies of Franco-U.S. collaboration in peace negotiations, contending also for the establishment of the Mississippi as a western territorial boundary and the right to navigate that river through its Spanish-held delta. Defending Virginia's (Virginia) charter title to the vast Northwest against states that had no claim to western territories and whose major motive was to validate barrel-of-rum purchases from Indian tribes, Madison defeated the land speculators by persuading Virginia to cede the western lands to Congress as a national heritage.Following the ratification of the Articles of Confederation (Confederation, Articles of) in 1781, Madison undertook to strengthen the Union by asserting implied power in Congress to enforce financial requisitions upon the states by military coercion. This move failing, he worked unceasingly for an amendment conferring power to raise revenue and wrote an eloquent address adjuring the states to avert national disintegration by ratifying the submitted article. The Chevalier de la Luzerne, French minister to the United States, wrote that Madison was “regarded as the man of the soundest judgment in Congress.”The father of the ConstitutionReentering the Virginia legislature in 1784, Madison defeated Patrick Henry (Henry, Patrick)'s bill to give financial support to “teachers of the Christian religion.” To avoid the political effect of his extreme nationalism, he persuaded the states-rights advocate John Tyler to sponsor the calling of the Annapolis Convention of 1786, which, aided by Madison's influence, produced the Constitutional Convention of 1787.There his Virginia, or large-state, Plan, put forward through Governor Edmund Randolph (Randolph, Edmund Jennings), furnished the basic framework and guiding principles of the Constitution (Constitution of the United States of America), earning him the title of father of the Constitution. Madison believed keenly in the value of a strong government in which power was well controlled because it was well balanced among the branches. (See primary source document: A Plurality of Interests and a Balance of Power (James Madison: A Plurality of Interests and a Balance of Powers).) Delegate William Pierce of Georgia wrote that, in the management of every great question, Madison “always comes forward the best informed Man of any point in debate.” Pierce called him “a Gentleman of great modesty—with a remarkable sweet temper. He is easy and unreserved among his acquaintances, and has a most agreeable style of conversation.”Madison took day-by-day notes of debates at the Constitutional Convention, which furnish the only comprehensive history of the proceedings. To promote ratification he collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in newspaper publication of the Federalist papers (Madison wrote 29 out of 85), which became the standard commentary on the Constitution. His influence produced ratification by Virginia and led John Marshall (Marshall, John) to say that, if eloquence included “persuasion by convincing, Mr. Madison was the most eloquent man I ever heard.”Elected to the new House of Representatives, Madison sponsored the first 10 amendments to the Constitution—the Bill of Rights (Rights, Bill of)—placing emphasis in debate on freedom of religion, speech, and press. His leadership in the House, which caused the Massachusetts congressman Fisher Ames (Ames, Fisher) to call him “our first man,” came to an end when he split with Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton (Hamilton, Alexander) over methods of funding the war debts. Hamilton's aim was to strengthen the national government by cementing men of wealth to it; Madison sought to protect the interests of Revolutionary veterans.Hamilton's victory turned Madison into a strict constructionist of the congressional power to appropriate for the general welfare. He denied the existence of implied power to establish a national bank (Bank of the United States) to aid the Treasury. Later, as president, he asked for and obtained a bank as “almost [a] necessity” for that purpose, but he contended that it was constitutional only because Hamilton's bank had gone without constitutional challenge. Unwillingness to admit error was a lifelong characteristic. The break over funding split Congress into Madisonian and Hamiltonian factions, with Fisher Ames now calling Madison a “desperate party leader” who enforced a discipline “as severe as the Prussian.” (Madisonians turned into Jeffersonians after Jefferson, having returned from France, became secretary of state.)In 1794 Madison married a widow, Dolley Payne Todd (Madison, Dolley) (Dolley Madison (Madison, Dolley)), a handsome, buxom, vivacious Quaker 17 years his junior, who rejected church discipline and loved social activities. Her first husband had died in the yellow fever epidemic the previous year. She periodically served as official hostess for President Jefferson, who was a widower. As Madison's wife, she became a fixture at soirées, usually wearing a colourful feathered turban and an elegant dress ornamented with jewelry and furs. She may be said to have created the role of First Lady as a political partner of the president, although that label did not come into use until much later. An unpretentious woman, she ate heartily, gambled, rouged her face lavishly, and took snuff. The “Wednesday drawing rooms” that she instituted for the public added to her popularity. She earned the nation's undying gratitude for rescuing a Gilbert Stuart (Stuart, Gilbert) portrait of George Washington in 1814 just ahead of the British troops who put the torch to the White House in the War of 1812 (1812, War of).Madison left Congress in 1797, disgusted by John Jay's treaty (Jay Treaty) with England, which frustrated his program of commercial retaliation against the wartime oppression of U.S. maritime commerce. The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 inspired him to draft the Virginia Resolutions (Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions) of that year, denouncing those statutes as violations of the First Amendment of the Constitution and affirming the right and duty of the states (states' rights) “to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil.” Carefully worded to mean less legally than they seemed to threaten, they forced him to spend his octogenarian years combating South Carolina's interpretation of them as a sanction of state power to nullify federal law.During eight years as Jefferson (Jefferson, Thomas)'s secretary of state (1801–09), Madison used the words “The President has decided” so regularly that his own role can be discovered only in foreign archives. British diplomats dealing with Madison encountered “asperity of temper and fluency of expression.” Senators John Adair and Nicholas Gilman agreed in 1806 that he “governed the President,” an opinion held also by French minister Louis-Marie Turreau.Madison's presidencyAlthough he was accused of weakness in dealing with France and England, Madison won the presidency in 1808 by publishing his vigorous diplomatic dispatches (see primary source document: First Inaugural Address (James Madison: First Inaugural Address)). Faced with a senatorial cabal on taking office, he made a senator's lacklustre brother, Robert Smith, secretary of state and wrote all important diplomatic letters for two years before replacing him with James Monroe (Monroe, James). Although he had fully supported Jefferson's wartime shipping embargo (Embargo Act), Madison reversed his predecessor's policy two weeks after assuming the presidency by secretly notifying both Great Britain and France, then at war, that, in his opinion, if the country addressed should stop interfering with U.S. commerce and the other belligerent continued to do so, “Congress will, at the next ensuing session, authorize acts of hostility…against the other.”An agreement with England providing for repeal of its Orders in Council (order in council), which limited trade by neutral nations with France, collapsed because the British minister violated his instructions; he concealed the requirements that the United States continue its trade embargo against France, renounce wartime trade with Britain's enemies, and authorize England to capture any U.S. vessel attempting to trade with France. Madison expelled the minister's successor for charging, falsely, that the president had been aware of the violation.Believing that England was bent on permanent suppression of American commerce, Madison proclaimed nonintercourse with England on November 2, 1810, and notified France on the same day that this would “necessarily lead to war” unless England stopped its impressment of American seamen and seizure of American goods and vessels. One week earlier, unknown to Congress (in recess) or the public, he had taken armed possession of the Spanish province of West Florida, claimed as part of the Louisiana Purchase. He was reelected in 1812, despite strong opposition and the vigorous candidacy of DeWitt Clinton (Clinton, DeWitt) (see primary source document: Second Inaugural Address (James Madison: Second Inaugural Address)).With his actions buried in secrecy, Federalists and politicians pictured Madison as a timorous pacifist dragged into the War of 1812 (1812, War of) (1812–15) by congressional War Hawks (War Hawk), and they denounced the conflict as "Mr. Madison's War." In fact, the president had sought peace but accepted war as inevitable. As wartime commander in chief he was hampered by the refusal of Congress to heed pleas for naval and military development and made the initial error of entrusting army command to aging veterans of the Revolution. The small U.S. Navy sparkled, but on land defeat followed defeat.By 1814, however, Madison had lowered the average age of generals from 60 to 36 years; victories resulted, ending a war the principal cause of which had been removed by revocation of the Orders in Council the day before the conflict began. Contemporary public opinion in the United States, Canada, England, and continental Europe proclaimed the result a U.S. triumph. Still the country would never forget the ignominy of the president and his wife having to flee in the face of advancing British troops bent on laying waste Washington, D.C., including setting afire the executive mansion, the Capitol, and other public buildings.The Federalist Party was killed by its opposition to the war, and the president was lifted to a pinnacle of popularity. Madison's greatest fault was delay in discharging incompetent subordinates, including Secretary of War John Armstrong (Armstrong, John), who had scoffed at the president's repeated warnings of a coming British attack on Washington and ignored presidential orders for its defense.On leaving the presidency, Madison was eulogized at a Washington mass meeting for having won national power and glory “without infringing a political, civil, or religious right.” Even in the face of sabotage of war operations by New England Federalists, he had lived up to the maxim he laid down in 1793 when he had said:If we advert to the nature of republican government we shall find that the censorial power is in the people over the government, and not in the government over the people.Later lifeNever again leaving Virginia, Madison managed his 5,000-acre (2,000-hectare) farm for 19 years, cultivating the land by methods regarded today as modern innovations. As president of the Albemarle Agricultural Society, he warned that human life might be wiped out by upsetting the balance of nature, including invisible organisms. He hated slavery, which held him in its economic chains, and worked to abolish it through government purchase of slaves and their resettlement in Liberia, financed by sale of public lands. When his personal valet ran away in 1792 and was recaptured—a situation that usually meant sale into the yellow-fever-infested West Indies—Madison set him free and hired him. Another slave managed one-third of the Montpelier farmlands during Madison's years in federal office.Madison participated in Jefferson's creation of the University of Virginia (Virginia, University of) (1819) and later served as its rector. Excessive hospitality, chronic agricultural depression, the care of aged slaves, and the squandering of $40,000 by and on a wayward stepson made him land-poor in old age. His last years were spent in bed; he was barely able to bend his rheumatic fingers, which nevertheless turned out an endless succession of letters and articles combating nullification and secession—the theme of his final “Advice to My Country.” Henry Clay called him, after George Washington, “our greatest statesman.”(For additional writings by Madison, see Concerning Public Opinion (James Madison: Concerning Public Opinion) and The Civil and Religious Functions of Government (James Madison: The Civil and Religious Functions of Government).)Cabinet of President James MadisonCabinet of President James Madison Cabinet of President James MadisonThe table provides a list of cabinet members in the administration of President James Madison.Additional ReadingWilliam T. Hutchinson et al. (eds.), The Papers of James Madison, 17 vol. (1962–91), is the most extensive collection of Madison's writings, annotated and with background notes. Gaillard Hunt (ed.), The Writings of James Madison, 9 vol. (1900–10), comprises Madison's public papers and private correspondence, and Hunt also edited The Journal of the Debates in the Convention Which Framed the Constitution of the United States, May–September 1787, As Recorded by James Madison, 2 vol. (1908), which is the only continuous and an almost exhaustive record of that convention. James Morton Smith (ed.), The Republic of Letters: The Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, 1776–1826, 3 vol. (1995), includes more than 1,200 letters detailing their friendship. A valuable briefer presentation of this subject is Adrienne Koch, Jefferson and Madison: The Great Collaboration (1950, reprinted 1987).Madison's life is most competently and exhaustively treated by Irving Brant, James Madison, 6 vol. (1941–61), which sets out to counter the hitherto prevailing misrepresentation of the Madison and Jefferson administrations and particularly the derogation of Madison relative to Jefferson; Brant's The Fourth President (1970) selectively condenses the multivolume work into a single volume. Ralph Ketcham, James Madison (1971, reprinted 1990), is also good. Drew R. McCoy, The Last of the Fathers: James Madison and the Republican Legacy (1989), tells about the man after his presidential career.The following works discuss and evaluate Madison's political career and administrations: the first section of John Quincy Adams, The Lives of James Madison and James Monroe, Fourth and Fifth Presidents of the United States (1850); William C. Rives, History of the Life and Times of James Madison, 3 vol. (1859–68, reprinted 1970), concentrating on the period from the American Revolution until 1797; Sydney Howard Gay, James Madison (1884, reissued 1983), covering up to 1797; William Lee Miller, The Business of May Next: James Madison and the Founding (1992), detailing the period from 1784 to 1791; and Robert Allen Rutland, The Presidency of James Madison (1990), focusing on the War of 1812.Madison's political philosophy is analyzed in Stuart G. Brown, The First Republicans: Political Philosophy and Public Policy in the Party of Jefferson and Madison (1954, reprinted 1976), a work concerned with Madison, Monroe, and Jefferson and the development of the essential partisan ideas that bound together the republican faction; Irving Brant, James Madison and American Nationalism (1968), an account of Madison's role in the formation and development of U.S. institutions against the background of the popular attitude, with corroboratory documentary readings; Lance Banning, The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic (1995), explaining Madison's views on national government; and Richard K. Matthews, If Men Were Angels: James Madison and the Heartless Empire of Reason (1995), contending that Madison followed liberal political beliefs.Irving Brant Ed.
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