- Mach, Ernst
born Feb. 18, 1838, Chirlitz-Turas, Moraviadied Feb. 19, 1916, Haar, Ger.Austrian physicist and philosopher.After earning a doctorate in physics in 1860, he taught at the Universities of Vienna and Graz as well as Charles University in Prague. Interested in the psychology and physiology of sensation, in the 1860s he discovered the physiological phenomenon known as Mach's bands, the tendency of the human eye to see bright or dark bands near the boundaries between areas of sharply differing illumination. He later studied movement and acceleration and developed optical and photographic techniques for measuring sound waves and wave propagation. In 1887 he established the principles of supersonics and the Mach number, the ratio of the velocity of an object to the velocity of sound. He also proposed the theory of inertia known as Mach's principle. In Contributions to the Analysis of the Sensations (1886), he asserted that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience or observation.
* * *▪ Austrian physicistborn Feb. 18, 1838, Chirlitz-Turas, Moravia, Austrian Empiredied Feb. 19, 1916, Haar, Ger.Austrian physicist and philosopher who established important principles of optics, mechanics, and wave dynamics and who supported the view that all knowledge is a conceptual organization of the data of sensory experience (or observation).Mach was educated at home until the age of 14, then went briefly to gymnasium (high school) before entering the University of Vienna at 17. He received his doctorate in physics in 1860 and taught mechanics and physics in Vienna until 1864, when he became professor of mathematics at the University of Graz. Mach's interests had already begun to turn to the psychology and physiology of sensation, although he continued to identify himself as a physicist and to conduct physical research throughout his career. During the 1860s he discovered the physiological phenomenon that has come to be called Mach's bands, the tendency of the human eye to see bright or dark bands near the boundaries between areas of sharply differing illumination.Mach left Graz to become professor of experimental physics at the Charles University in Prague in 1867, remaining there for the next 28 years. There he conducted studies on kinesthetic sensation, the feeling associated with movement and acceleration. Between 1873 and 1893 he developed optical and photographic techniques for the measurement of sound waves and wave propagation. In 1887 he established the principles of supersonics and the Mach number—the ratio of the velocity of an object to the velocity of sound.In Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen (1886; Contributions to the Analysis of the Sensations, 1897), Mach advanced the concept that all knowledge is derived from sensation; thus, phenomena under scientific investigation can be understood only in terms of experiences, or “sensations,” present in the observation of the phenomena. This view leads to the position that no statement in natural science is admissible unless it is empirically verifiable. Mach's exceptionally rigorous criteria of verifiability led him to reject such metaphysical concepts as absolute time and space, and prepared the way for the Einstein relativity theory.Mach also proposed the physical principle, known as Mach's principle, that inertia (the tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest and of a body in motion to continue in motion in the same direction) results from a relationship of that object with all the rest of the matter in the universe. Inertia, Mach argued, applies only as a function of the interaction between one body and other bodies in the universe, even at enormous distances. Mach's inertial theories also were cited by Einstein as one of the inspirations for his theories of relativity.Mach returned to the University of Vienna as professor of inductive philosophy in 1895, but he suffered a stroke two years later and retired from active research in 1901, when he was appointed to the Austrian parliament. He continued to lecture and write in retirement, publishing Erkenntnis und Irrtum (“Knowledge and Error”) in 1905 and an autobiography in 1910.
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Mach,Ernst — Mach (mäk, mäKH), Ernst. 1838 1916. Austrian physicist and philosopher who played a central role in the development of logical positivism. His works include the influential Science of Mathematics (1883). * * * … Universalium
Mach , Ernst — (1838–1916) Austrian physicist Mach, who was born at Turas (now in the Czech Republic), had a somewhat unorthodox upbringing and education. His father was a man knowledgable in both the classics and the sciences who retired to farm near Vienna… … Scientists
Mach, Ernst — (1838–1916) A physicist and philosopher, Mach had a profound influence on Austrian science and culture generally. His teaching career at the University of Vienna was relatively brief, beginning in 1895 but severely curtailed by a serious… … Historical dictionary of Austria
Mach, Ernst — (1838–1916) Austrian physicist and philosopher. Born in Turas, Mach studied at Vienna, and held chairs in mathematics at Graz, physics at Prague, and then history and theory of inductive science at Vienna. He is widely regarded as the major… … Philosophy dictionary
Mach, Ernst — ► (1838 1916) Físico y filósofo austríaco. Fue uno de los precursores de la teoría de la relatividad. * * * (18 feb. 1838, Chirlitz Turas, Moravia–19 feb. 1916, Haar, Alemania). Físico y filósofo austríaco. Después de obtener un doctorado en… … Enciclopedia Universal
Mach, Ernst — See Science ( … History of philosophy
Mach Ernst — Мах Эрнст (1838 1916) физик, философ идеалист. Один из основателей эмпириокритицизма (махизма). Труды по механике, газовой динамике, акустике и оптике. Открыл и исследовал ударные волны. Его именем названа одна из единиц измерения физики (число… … Австрия. Лингвострановедческий словарь
Мах Эрнст / Mach, Ernst — (1838 1916). Маха зачислили в разряд позитивистов, так как он считал, что ощущения составляют данные любой науки. С его точки зрения, всякая наука является наблюдательной, а первичные данные наблюдения это не что иное, как ощущения … Психологическая энциклопедия
Mach — Mach, Ernst … Philosophy dictionary
Mach — Ernst … Scientists