Kārūn River


Kārūn River
River, southwestern Iran.

A tributary of the Shatt al-Arab, it rises in the Bakhtīārī Mountains and flows through mountains for 515 mi (829 km). The Ḥaffār Channel, dug in 986, changed its course, causing frontier disputes between Iran and the Ottoman Empire; Iran gained the right to the waterway by treaty in 1847.

Dam on the Kārūn River, Iran

Dennis Briskin/Tom Stack & Associates

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river, Iran
Persian  Rūd-e Kārūn , ancient  Ulai , or  Eulaeus 

      river in southwestern Iran, a tributary of the Shatt al-Arab, which it joins at Khorramshahr. It rises in the Bakhtīārī Mountains west of Eṣfahān and follows a tortuous course trending basically southwest. The Kārūn's total length is 515 miles (829 km), though the direct distance from its source to the junction with the Shatt al-Arab is only 180 miles (290 km). Its catchment basin up to Ahvāz has an area of 22,069 square miles (57,059 square km), of which 7,000 square miles (18,130 square km) belong to its main tributary, the Dez. Most of the area is mountainous, forming part of the limestone Zagros ranges.

      The river's course divides into three parts: from the sources to Gatvand, where the river emerges from the mountains; from Gatvand to Band Qīr, where it is joined by the Dez; and from Band Qīr through Ahvāz southward to the Shatt al-Arab. In its upper course the Kārūn is a powerful stream, increasing in volume as it is successively joined by its tributaries. For long stretches it flows rapidly between high precipices. At Band Qīr the river, enlarged by the Dez, is navigable to its mouth except for about 2 miles (3 km) of rapids at Ahvāz. Below Ahvāz the river is sometimes too shallow for navigation, especially during the dry season. Seasonal variation in discharge rate shows the lowest water level to be in October, and the highest, as the result of combined precipitation and meltwater, in April.

      Formerly the Kārūn had a lower course that was separated from and to the east of the Shatt al-Arab. There are three old riverbeds (apparently used successively) that branch off at the left of the Kārūn; they are known as Shatt al-Qadimi (Farsi: “Ancient River”), Shatt al-ʿAmeh (Farsi: “Blind River”), and Rūdkhāneh-ye Bahmanshīr. Rūdkhāneh-ye Bahmanshīr delimits the eastern edge of the island of Abadan. In 1765, however, the river changed to its present course through the apparently artificial Haffār Channel. According to the geographer al-Maqdisī, this channel was dug in AD 986 to facilitate water communication between Ahvāz and Basra. This change resulted in frontier disputes between the Ottoman Empire and Iran, disputes that were settled by the treaty of Erzurum (1847), giving Iran access to the eastern bank of the Shatt al-Arab and the right to use the waterway.

      The Kārūn up to Ahvāz was opened to international navigation in 1888, and boat services were later established between Ahvāz and Band Qīr. Shipping on the lower course of the Kārūn has become increasingly important owing to oil drilling and refining in the vicinity. To increase the water supply of Eṣfahān, a dam and tunnel on the river were completed in 1971.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • KARUN RIVER —    rising in the Zarduh Koh Mountains W. of Ispahân; flows W. and S. past Shuster into the Persian Gulf; is the sole navigable waterway of Persia, and was thrown open to trade 1888 …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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  • Karun-3 dam — Infobox Dam dam name= Karun 3 Dam caption= Karun 3 Dam official name= Karun 3 Dam crosses= Karun River reservoir= locale=Khuzestan Iran maint= Iran Water Power Resources Development Co. length= 462 m height= 205 m width= began= open= 2005 closed …   Wikipedia

  • Karun-4 dam — Infobox Dam dam name= Karun 3 Dam caption= Karun4 Dam, Under Construction official name= Karun 4 Dam crosses= Karun River reservoir= locale=Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province Iran maint= Iran Water Power Resources Development Co. length= 440 m… …   Wikipedia

  • river — river1 riverless, adj. riverlike, adj. /riv euhr/, n. 1. a natural stream of water of fairly large size flowing in a definite course or channel or series of diverging and converging channels. 2. a similar stream of something other than water: a… …   Universalium

  • Karun — Karun, Fluß im südwestlichen Persien, entspringt südwestlich von Ispahan in 3880 m Höhe auf den Kalkgebirgen der Bachtijaren und mündet nach gewundenem Lauf bei Mohammera in den Schatt el Arab. Seit 1888 für die Schiffahrt freigegeben, wird er… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Karun — geographical name river over 500 miles (804 kilometers) W Iran flowing into Shatt al Arab …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Karun — /keuh roohn , kah /, n. a river in SW Iran, flowing SW to the Shatt al Arab. ab. 515 mi. (830 km) long. * * * …   Universalium

  • Karun — Ka•run [[t]kəˈrun, kɑ [/t]] n. geg a river in SW Iran, flowing SW to the Shatt al Arab. ab. 515 mi. (830 km) long …   From formal English to slang

  • Karun — /keuh roohn , kah /, n. a river in SW Iran, flowing SW to the Shatt al Arab. ab. 515 mi. (830 km) long …   Useful english dictionary


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