flourished 13th century, Java

Last king (1268–92) of Tumapel (Singhasari) in Java.

His birth reunited the two halves of the Javanese kingdom, and his name means "Order in the Realm." To bolster his kingdom against Kublai Khan, he expanded it, marrying a princess of Champa (central Vietnam), sending envoys to Malayu (Sumatra), and conquering Bali. He refused to pay homage to Kublai Khan but was killed by a vassal before Kublai's armed forces arrived to punish him. Two early Javanese chronicles give contradictory pictures of the king: one describes him as drunken and incompetent; the other depicts him as a wise king and zealous follower of Tantric Buddhism. He is still venerated as one of Java's greatest rulers.

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▪ king of Indonesia
flourished 13th century
 last king (1268–92) of Tumapel (or Singhasāri) in Java, still venerated among the Javanese as one of their greatest rulers. He united Java, extended his influence over Sumatra, and resisted Mongol attempts to exact tribute from his kingdom.

      Kertanagara was the son of princely families—King Vishnuvardhana of Janggala and a princess of Kaḍiri—so that by birth he was a reuniter of the two halves of the Javanese kingdom. Even his name, Kertanagara, meaning “order in the realm,” might refer to reunion, which was the achievement of a great king according to the Javanese dualistic cosmology. Probably for this reason, he was consecrated a king in 1254 before his father's death. For the ceremony people from Janggala and Kaḍiri went to Kutaraja, the capital city of Tumapel, which was then renamed Singhasāri. From that time Tumapel was also called Singhasāri. Kertanagara was too young to rule the country; therefore, his father was still the de facto ruler. Kertanagara came to power only in 1268.

      Kertanagara's reign coincided with the expansion of Kublai Khan's (Kublai Khan) realm in Southeast Asia. Kertanagara thought that he could stop an invasion only by aligning himself with or conquering neighbouring states and by strengthening himself with religious rites. His chief minister Raganatha disagreed with Kertanagara's policy and, as a result, was removed from the post; Aragani, who was an ardent supporter of the policy, therefore came to power.

      Kertanagara married a princess of Champa (southern Vietnam), a country that was dangerously exposed to Kublai Khan. Kertanagara sent envoys to Malayu (Sumatra) in 1275, and his statue as Amoghapāśa (Dhyāni Buddha Avalokiteśvara) was erected in the area (Jambi) in 1286, an indication that his influence had reached Sumatra. He also conquered Bali in 1284. A statue of a meditative Buddha, known as Jaka Dolog, discovered in Surabaja (eastern Java), was also erected by Kertanagara. According to its inscription, the statue was erected for the benefit of the king, the royal family, and the unity of the kingdom. Because the statue was erected on the hermitage of Bharada, the great wizard who had been asked to divide eastern Java into two kingdoms during the reign of Airlangga (1019–49), it must also have been aimed at neutralizing the evil effects of Bharada's division of his land.

      When an envoy of Kublai Khan, Meng Ch'i (or Meng K'i), arrived in Java in 1289 to ask for tribute, Kertanagara refused to pay. This infuriated the Khan, who sent armed forces to punish Kertanagara. Before the troops arrived, however, Kertanagara was killed by the ruler of his vassal state, Jayakatwang of Kaḍiri, in the course of a Tantric ritual drinking bout.

      Kertanagara is still venerated by Indonesians as one of their greatest rulers. The information on him is sketchy and is primarily based on the two Javanese chronicles—the Pararaton (“Book of Kings”) and garakertāgama (the epic of Majapahit), which give contradictory pictures of the King.

      Pararaton says only that the King was a drunkard and fond of good food. He dismissed his able chief minister Raganatha (Kebo Arema) and appointed Aragani, who could serve him delicious food every day. Aragani is also known as Kebo Tengali, though some scholars say these were two separate men. He drank palm wine and held orgies, which eventually led to his death—he was killed by his enemies during one of his wild parties.

      Nāgarakertāgama describes Kertanagara as a great and wise king and as a zealous follower of Tantric Buddhism, which dealt with magic and demons and encouraged drinking and orgies of a ritual sort having nothing to do with pleasure-seeking. He believed that he was living in the Kali yuga, in Hindu cosmology the last of the four periods of world history, which was full of confusion, fear, and disaster, and that he, as a ruler, should save the world. According to at least one 20th-century scholar, however, “he knew the practical difficulties of protecting the world in Kali yuga, therefore he zealously upheld his religious duties and vows, in order to strengthen the Buddhist faith and to follow the example of former rulers with a view to securing the welfare of the world.”

      Both the Jaka Dolog and the Amoghapāśa statues indicate that Kertanagara was very religious, as suggested by Nāgarakertāgama. This does not mean, however, that he was unskilled in politics and government; in fact, he often used religion as an aid in gaining political ends.

      Nāgarakertāgama indicates that toward the end of his life, Kertanagara became more involved in religious practices. It can be argued that he was too involved in his religion to provide for security of his throne and his country. Thus, although he thought of himself as being strong enough to resist Kublai Khan and hence refused to pay him any homage, he was not able to defend himself against an internal rival. Nonetheless, he was worshipped as a great king by many later Javanese leaders.

      Many scholars tend to accept the Nāgarakertāgama because it fits in the historical context and is in accordance with the historical evidence.

Leo Suryadinata

Additional Reading
D.G.E. Hall, A History of Southeast Asia, 3rd ed., pp. 70–79 (1968), a detailed and comprehensive history of Java; Theodore G.T. Pigeaud (ed.), Java in the Fourteenth Century: A Study in Cultural History, 5 vol. (1960–63), includes the complete translation of the Javanese chronicle Nāgarakertāgama; Bertram Schrieke, Indonesian Sociological Studies, pt. 2 (1957), a detailed and stimulating study of premodern Indonesian government and politics by a leading Dutch sociologist; B.H.M. Vlekke, Nusantara: A History of Indonesia, rev. ed., pp. 61–65 (1965), a well-researched section on Kertanagara in a standard textbook on the history of Indonesia.

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Universalium. 2010.

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