- Kara Koyunlu
or Qara QoyunluTurkmen tribal federation that ruled Azerbaijan and Iraq (с 1375–1468).Their second leader, Kara Yūsuf (r. 1390–1400, 1406–20), secured their independence by seizing Tabrīz, the capital of the Jalāyrid dynasty. He was beaten back by the armies of Timur but regained Tabrīz in 1406. He captured Baghdad in 1410. His successor, Jihān Shah, died in battle against a rival Turkmen federation, the Ak Koyunlu, in 1466, and the empire fell in 1468.
* * *▪ Turkmen tribal federationalso spelled Qara Qoyunlu , Turkish Karakoyunlular , English Black SheepTurkmen tribal federation that ruled Azerbaijan and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.The Kara Koyunlu were vassals of the Jalāyirid dynasty of Baghdad and Tabrīz from about 1375, when the head of their leading tribe, Kara Muḥammad Turmush (reigned c. 1375–90), ruled Mosul. The federation secured its independence with the seizure of Tabrīz (which became its capital) by Kara Yūsuf (reigned 1390–1400; 1406–20). Routed by the armies of Timur in 1400, Kara Yūsuf sought refuge with the Mamlūks of Egypt but by 1406 was able to regain Tabrīz. He then secured the Kara Koyunlu position against threats from the Ak Koyunlu (“White Sheep”), a rival Turkmen federation in the province of Diyār Bakr (modern Iraq), and from the Georgians and Shīrvān-Shāhs in the Caucasus and Timur's successors in Iran. The capture of Baghdad in 1410 and the installation of a subsidiary Kara Koyunlu line there hastened the downfall of the Jalāyirids themselves.Despite the dynastic struggles for primacy in the years following Kara Yūsuf's death (1420) and continuing Timurid pressure, the Kara Koyunlu maintained a firm grip on their possessions. Jihān Shāh (Jahān Shāh) (reigned c. 1438–67) established a temporary peace with the Timurid Shāh Rokh, who had helped him gain the Kara Koyunlu throne; but after Shāh Rokh's death in 1447, Jihān Shāh annexed portions of Iraq and the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula as well as Timurid western Iran. Jihān Shāh's rule was repeatedly troubled, however, by his rebellious sons and by the semiautonomous Kara Koyunlu rulers of Baghdad, whom he expelled in 1464. An attempt to take Diyār Bakr from the Ak Koyunlu in 1466 ended in Jihān Shāh's defeat and death, and within two years the Kara Koyunlu succumbed to the superior Ak Koyunlu forces.
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Kara Koyunlu — Infobox Former Country native name = Garagoýunly conventional long name = Black Sheep Kara Koyunlu common name = Kara Koyunlu continent = Asia region = Middle East country = era = Medieval status = status text = empire = government type =… … Wikipedia
Kara Koyunlu — قه ره قویونلو قرا قویونلو قرا قویونلو Kara Koyunlu (turcos de ovejas negras) … Wikipedia Español
Kara Koyunlu — Qara Qoyunlu Emblème des Kara Koyunlu Les Kara Koyunlu ou Qara Qoyunlu, aussi appelée les Moutons Noirs Turcomans (turkmène : Garagoýunly ; azéri : Qaraqoyunlu ; turc : Karakoyunlu ; persan قراقویونلی), sont une… … Wikipédia en Français
Kara Koyunlu — See Ak Koyunlu … Historical Dictionary of the Kurds
List of rulers of Kara Koyunlu — This is the list of rulers of Kara Koyunlu dynasty ( The Horde of the Black Sheep ). The dynasty ruled the territory now part of present day Iran, Iraq and eastern Turkey. Their capital was the city of Tabriz.Kara Koyunlu rulers … Wikipedia
Kara Youssouf — (Qara Yusuf) « Youssouf le Noir » (mort en décembre 1419 ), fut le souverain des Moutons Noirs Turcomans (Kara Koyunlu) d environ 1388 à 1419. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Postérité 3 Notes et références … Wikipédia en Français
Kara Yusuf — Kara Youssouf Kara Youssouf (Qara Yusuf) « Youssouf le Noir » (mort en décembre 1419 ),fut le souverain des Moutons Noirs Turcomans (Kara Koyunlu) d environ 1388 à 1419. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Postérité 3 Notes et références … Wikipédia en Français
Kara Yülük Osman — Kara Osman ( az. Qara Yuluq Osman Bəy, tr. Kara Yülük Osman Bey) (mid to late 14th century to 1435, reigned 1378 1435) was a late 14th and early 15th century leader of the Turkmen tribal federation of Ak Koyunlu in what is now Azerbaijan, Iraq,… … Wikipedia
Kara Yülük Osman — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Osman (nom). Kara Osman ou Qara Yülük Uthman (azéri : Qara Yuluq Osman Bəy, turc : Kara Osman Bey Yülük) (v. 1350 1435) est le fondateur la dynastie des Ak Koyunlu (« les gens aux moutons… … Wikipédia en Français
Ak Koyunlu — ▪ Turkmen tribal federation also spelled Aq Qoyunlu (Turkish: “White Sheep”) Turkmen tribal federation that ruled northern Iraq, Azerbaijan, and eastern Anatolia from AD 1378 to 1508. The Ak Koyunlu were present in eastern Anatolia… … Universalium